加以

82riceballs

Senior Member
English - USA
Hi all,

I'm having trouble understanding why 加以 is necessary at all. It seems kind of superfluous...

E.g. example sentences from https://www.chineseboost.com/grammar/jia1yi3/
1. 科學家的工作就是對理論加以檢驗。-->Why can't this just be: 科學家的工作就是檢驗理論。???
2. 政府必須對槍枝的買賣加以限制。--> Why can't this just be: 進行限制?
3. 本公司將此產品加以促銷。--> Why isn't it just 本公司促銷此產品?
4. 我們必須將古建築物加以保護。--> Why isn't this just 我們必須保護古建築物。

Thanks for your help!!!
 
  • Skatinginbc

    Senior Member
    Mandarin 國語
    It's about information structure. For example, to use the sentence 科學家的工作就是對理論加以檢驗 in his writing, one must ensure that a sample of scientific theories 理論 has been previously discussed. Otherwise, 科學家的工作就是檢驗理論 would be a better choice, in which 理論 is new information.
    科學家的工作就是對理論加以檢驗 ==> emphasize 檢驗.
    科學家的工作就是檢驗理論 ==> emphasize 理論.
     

    82riceballs

    Senior Member
    English - USA
    Hmmm very interesting!!! Thanks so much!

    I was recently reading the Chinese translation of an English piece on US policy towards Xi Jinping that included the following text:

    Translation: 伴隨其領海主張的侵略性行為,中國已經讓諸多鄰國決定彼此相互或和美國建立軍事合作關係加以制衡。
    Original: China's aggressive behavior over its maritime territorial claims has produced countervailing military cooperation among China's neighbors and the United States.

    My translation of the Chinese is: "many countries neighboring China have decided to partner up militarily with one another or with the U.S. in order to check (加以制衡) China's growing maritime aggression."

    In this case, it seems like 加以 is used to mean "in order to." Am I understanding this correctly? and if so is that another meaning of 加以???
     

    Skatinginbc

    Senior Member
    Mandarin 國語
    伴隨其領海主張的侵略性行為,中國已經讓諸多鄰國決定彼此相互或和美國建立軍事合作關係加以制衡。
    That sentence is poorly written. I couldn't understand it at all.
    My attempt: 中國伸張領海主權的侵略行為,已促使其鄰邦與美國軍事合作加以制衡 (來 = in order to, so as to).
     
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    ElGarcia

    Senior Member
    Chinese - Mandarin
    In this case, it seems like 加以 is used to mean "in order to." Am I understanding this correctly? and if so is that another meaning of 加以???
    加以 would never mean "in order to". It has no substantive meaning other than indicating a relationship between the verb and the object. It is often used for formal writing/speech, sometimes to make a sentence sound better. For example, "對古建築物加以保護" is more formal and sounds stronger than "保護古建築物" (btw we don't use "將" with "加以"). Your example (3) sounds a bit odd to me for that reason- in an oral/informal context (product promotion) 加以 is a little out of place.

    Also compare:
    檢驗理論 test the theory
    對理論加以檢驗 put the theory to test
    I'm not sure if 加以 necessarily emphasizes the verb to follow, as Skatinginbc suggests. But you see the nuance between these two expressions. Besides, 加以 sometimes allow you to omit the object:
    科學家的工作就是提出理論,然後加以檢驗。
     

    Skatinginbc

    Senior Member
    Mandarin 國語
    加以 sometimes allow you to omit the object
    It proves that 加以 "emphasizes" or focuses on the verb, not the object. The object is often old information (i.e., previously mentioned, implied, or easily inferred) and therefore can be omitted.
     

    dolmens

    Member
    中文 - 中国
    The word '加以' itself is a verb, which means to apply, and the normal verb '检验' here becomes a noun. So is the word '进行', which means applying. For simplify, you can ignore the 'apply' meaning here and just take that as Infinitives or Gerunds.

    '加以' + verb ==> to verb, Infinitives
    '进行' + verb ==> verb-ing, Gerunds

    There is a slight difference between the phrase "对 object 加以 action" and "对 object 进行 action", just like Infinitives and Gerunds, the latter one emphasizes the action continuous.

    他的工作是对设备加以测试
    literally ==> His work is to apply test to the apparatus.
    finnaly ==> His work is to test the apparatus.

    他的工作是对设备进行测试
    literally ==> His work is applying test to the apparatus.
    finnaly ==> His work is testing the apparatus.
     
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