Hi all, I've been reading a history textbook recently and coming across the conjunction 因而 a lot. I've been confused though as to how it is different from 因此, since they both mean "as a result of..." Here are the sentences I've encountered and my attempts at translation below- 1. 土地改革減輕農民負擔，提高生產意願，因而生產力增加。 Land reforms lessened the burdens of farmers and raised their motivation to produce more, thereby increasing productivity. 2. 美資在臺投資主要是把產品回銷本國市場，因而促進了臺灣對美國的出口。 American investment in Taiwan mainly made it so that products would be sold back to the U.S., thereby stimulating Taiwan's exports to the U.S. 3. 1968年，義務教育延長為九年，教育水準因而普遍提高。 In 1968, mandatory education was extended to nine years, thereby raising the overall level of education. (The original Chinese sentence: 1968年，義務教育延長為九年，初中改稱國民中學。教育水準因而普遍提高，女性就讀中學比率大增。) Couldn't the 因而 in the above sentences all be replaced with 因此?? or is there some subtle difference that I'm missing? If it helps, on an online forum, I found the following explanation, although I'm not sure if it's correct: 因此：因为。。。就如此。。。------目的是说明原因，由于A原因---导致B结果 因而：因为。。。从而。。。。------目的是说明条件，由于A条件（变化）---导致B后果 所以：以。。。为根据 ------目的是说明B,根据在于A.