如何

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graysesame

Senior Member
Taiwanese Mandarin
I am wondering how the following words are etymologically related to each other. They share same kanji, same initial pronunciation. Do you know the answer or where to find useful resources to answer this question?
如何, いかん
如何, いかが
如何にも,いかにも
如何なる, いかなる
 
  • Flaminius

    coclea mod
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    They are all conjugations of the same adjective, いかなる (the evidence for the finis form いかな is weak; a lot of dictionaries may separate what I call conjugations in different parts of speech). This is like the French interrogative adjective, quel, except that it has an adverbial form in いかに.

    いかが < いかに + か (the interrogative particle)
    いかん is probably euphony resulting from いかに, but used like a noun nowadays.

    The assigning of 如何 to this word does not use this Chinese word correctly (assuming that this is a marker for rhetorical questions). This confusion is due to the fact that the Japanese いかに is used for simple questions, exclamations, as well as rhetorical questions. Nothing prohibits you from writing this word as 何如に, but it's probably not as frequent as the reversed order.
     
    The assigning of 如何 to this word does not use this Chinese word correctly (assuming that this is a marker for rhetorical questions).
    Just a note on Chinese usage:
    如何 is one of the most commonly used interrogative word and does not necessarily be marked as being rhetorical.
    何如 was much much more common than 如何 in old Chinese literature as interrogative and negative sentences normally triggers verb order inversion.
    Unlike Japanese which has a rich set of sentence ending words to express modalities, Chinese rhetorical questions are often understood from context, although some phrases are more frequently associated to this usage.

    I could not find any references to 如何 in 論語 but could find a few occurrences in 孟子. They are genuine questions, not rhetorical ones.

    曰、敢問薦之於天而天受之、暴之於民而民受之、如何。曰、使之主祭而百神享之。是天受之。使之主事而事治、百姓安之。是民受之也。天與之、人與之、故曰、天子不能以天下與人。治、去聲。
    【読み】
    曰く、敢えて問う、之を天に薦めて天之を受け、之を民に暴して民之を受くること、如何、と。曰く、之をして祭を主[つかさど]らしめて百神之を享く。是れ天之を受く。之をして事を主らしめて事治まり、百姓之を安んず。是れ民之を受く。天之に與え、人之に與う。故に曰く、天子天下を以て人に與うること能わず、と。治は去聲。
    咸丘蒙曰、舜之不臣堯、則吾旣得聞命矣。詩云、普天之下、莫非王土、率土之濱、莫非王臣。而舜旣爲天子矣。敢問瞽瞍之非臣、如何。曰、是詩也、非是之謂也。...
    【読み】
    咸丘蒙曰く、舜の堯を臣とせざることは、則ち吾旣に命を聞くことを得たり。詩に云く、普天の下、王土に非ずということ莫し、率土の濱、王臣に非ずということ莫し、と。而して舜旣に天子爲り。敢えて問う、瞽瞍の臣に非ざること、如何、と。曰く、是の詩は、是を謂うに非ず。...
    Yomi quoted from 孟子5 萬章章句上1-6 - 覚書き.

    The use of 如何 to transliterate いかに (or vice versa) seems to be morphologically a good choice.
    いかに apparently comprises the interrogative prefix い (as in つ, づく, づれ) and the manner suffix か (as in さわや, にぎや, maybe even etymologically related to the interrogative particles や and か).
    Similarly, Chinese 如何 or 何如 comes from the combination of interrogative pronoun 何 and a verb 如. The phrase literally means どのようにして. 如 is also often used like a manner suffix similar to 然, as illustrated in the following quote from 論語.
    子之燕居,申申如也,夭夭如也
    In Japanese terms, 如 is a 形容動詞 suffix like か and やか, so 何 如 becomes essentially a character by character translation of い か(に).
    But in Chinese, 如 can still be used like a verb, as in the following quote from 論語.
    天生德于予,桓魋其如予何?
    桓魋(person's name)がわたしをどうできるか。
     
    Last edited:

    Flaminius

    coclea mod
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    Oh I see, YangMuye! Your two examples of 如何 in 孟子 are indeed simple interrogatives. I remember learning in my kambun classes that 如何 and 何如 have different meanings but it's probably not a great topic in JP.:)
     
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