残らず, 限らず

kachibi

Senior Member
Chinese
I recently came across different words that end with らず and they all mean "not something".

For example, 残らず means "no remains". And also に限らず meaning "not limited to".

Until now, I cannot find any grammar page talking about らず. But can I conclude that らず basically means "not"?
 
  • ktdd

    Senior Member
    Mandarin - Beijing
    ず is the regular negative inflecting suffix (打消の助動詞) in Classical Japanese. It is attached to the imperfective stem (未然形) of a verb (so in 残る and 限る's case, 残ら and 限ら; but する=>せ, くる=>こ, 見る=>見, 死ぬ=>死な, 呼ぶ=>呼ば and so on).

    Its role is largely replaced by ない in Modern Japanese, but ず and its inflected forms ぬ、ね can still be found in fixed phrases (such as ~ねばならぬ=~なければならない, ~ずにすむ=~ないで済む) or elevated, archaic speech, and even everyday speech (見ず知らずの人, 思わず). The ん in すみません is derived from ぬ (the 連体形 of ず).

    For more details see 助動詞の種類と機能3(打消) 和歌入門 和歌のための文語文法
     
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    SoLaTiDoberman

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    助動詞「ない・ぬ(ん)」をマスターしよう
    (↑ 古語・文語でなくて現代国語用の文法)

    残らず
    =残ら(ラ行五段活用動詞「残る」の未然形)+ず(打消しの意味の助動詞「ぬ」の連用形)
    =残らなくて

    終止形は「残らぬ」or「残らない」

    限らず
    =限ら(ラ行五段活用動詞「限る」の未然形)+ず(打消しの意味の助動詞「ぬ」の連用形)
    =限らなくて

    終止形は「限らぬ」or「限らない」
     
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