给 (for / to give)

Discussion in '中文+方言 (Chinese)' started by alexonline, Oct 18, 2015.

  1. alexonline

    alexonline Senior Member

    Russian
    你们好:

    I`m having some trouble distinguishing between 给 as 'for',like in 请你我买一些苹果吧 - 'buy (for) me some apples' and as 'to give',like in 请我看看您的护照 - 'let (give) me see your passport'.

    Could you confirm,please,that I interpreted the following sentences right:

    1.这是给你的咖啡 - lit. 'this is coffee to give you' -> 'this is your coffee'?
    2.这些平果给你,你拿着 - ‘these apples give yourself (= take),?


    谢谢。
     
  2. cclin New Member

    Amoyese, Daiwan
    1.这是给你的咖啡 - lit. 'this is coffee to give you' -> 'this is your coffee'?
    2.这些平果给你,你拿着 - ‘these apples give yourself (= take),?’

    Sentence 1, "This coffee is for you."
    Likewise, "These apples are for you. Keep them."

    Hope it helps.
     
  3. SuperXW

    SuperXW Senior Member

    You can usually judge the meaning through the sentence's structure:

    1. 这是给你的咖啡This is coffee for you.
    是 is the verb. You don't need another verb.
    This is coffee to give you.
    Also ok, because here, "coffee for you" and "coffee to give you" mean exactly the same.

    2. 这些苹果给你你拿着Give you these apples. You hold them.
    No verb in the first sentence. 给 should be the verb.

    Anyway, in Chinese's minds, it's not important in your cases whether you understand them as "for you" or "to give you", as those things are both for you and to be given to you.

    But in some cases it is important, for example:
    给 somebody+verb: usually "for somebody", can't be "give somebody"
    E.g. 医生给你看病. "Doctor checks illness for you".
    给他拿走那些苹果. "You take away those apples for him."

    These are more complicate functions of "给 somebody" which can cause ambiguity, but I think you should understand the above sentences first.
    If you are not sure, always think it as "for somebody".
     
    Last edited: Oct 18, 2015
  4. fyl Senior Member

    Mandarin Chinese
    I think the OP is right, 给 is "to give" in both cases.

    When 给 means "for", it can be replaced by 为 (in most cases). And this is not the case in the two sentences.
    In both 这是给你的咖啡 and 这些苹果给你, coffee and apple are "given" to you. The action of "give" is quite clear when I read these two sentences.

    I think what may be confusing is that the English word "for" can be used in many places: "this coffee is for you" can mean "this coffee is given to you". But the "for" in "do sth for sb" should be distinguishable from "give".

    When 给 means "for", it is usually used in structures like 给+person+verb. When 给 means "give", the verb does not exist. Basically "for" and "give" are different parts of sentence.
     
  5. Skatinginbc

    Skatinginbc Senior Member

    Canada
    Mandarin 國語
    Agree.
    这是你的咖啡 vs. 这是你的父母 ==> 给 and 養 are verbs.
    这些苹果你,你拿着 vs. 这枚鑽戒你,你戴上

    请你给(= 為)我买一些苹果吧
    请给(= 讓)我看看您的护照
     
    Last edited: Oct 18, 2015
  6. alexonline

    alexonline Senior Member

    Russian
    谢谢大家!

    SuperXW,thanks very much,I got it.Just a touch up: 这些苹果(我)给你,你拿着 definitely is
    {Obj (+ Subj) + V}.Is that a fixed collocation for this meaning or we can make a regular sentence { (Subj) + V + Obj} out of it: (我)给你这些苹果,你拿着? Would the meaning remain the same?
     
    Last edited: Oct 19, 2015

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