It depends on the context. The two words are not exacly the same. I agree with Skatinginbc.
你的职业是什么？expect the answer to be a word like 'teacher' or 'education', and they are full answers.
你的工作是什么？expect the full answer to be 'math teacher at xxx school'. 工作 can be understood in many other ways too.
Basically, a 职业 has many specific job positions.
So the word choice depends on what you want to ask.