If I want to talk about a passage, a piece of writing (not necessarily a newspaper article), a text from a book, etc., and if I want to refer to it, saying "in this passage, the author...", "in this piece of writing, the author...", 記事という言葉は上記のものを指しますか。
The word 記事 is primarily used for non-fictional compositions in newspapers and magazines. You could refer to a fact-telling portion of a text as 記事 like this:
But I find it far more common to use 記述 in this case. We don't use 記事 as often as you might think.
A "passage" is usually called 箇所 with understanding you are referring to a portion in a specific text. A "piece of writing" of any size or genre is more often called 文章 or 一編 than 記事.