適応, 適用

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thetazuo

Senior Member
Chinese - China
そもそも士道の治癒能力は士道のものではなく、精霊となった琴里の霊力を封印したことにより発現したものだった。
その構造がもし、他のーー今まで士道がその身に霊力を封印してきた精霊たちにも適応されるのであれば。
他の精霊の力を士道が扱えるようになるということも、確かに考えられた。

Hi. Why is 適応 used in passive form in this context? (適応 is an intransitive verb so I think it should be in active form.)

Thank you.
 
  • Shiori Akaba

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    adapt is only an intransitive verb?
    I think it can be used in transitive and intransitive meaning.
     
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    Flaminius

    coclea mod
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    No doubt the English verb adapt is used both transitively and intransitively, but the Japanese 適応する is exclusively an intransitive verb.

    For a normative understanding, I turned to a well-known dictionary. 明鏡国語辞典 says s.v. that:
    《自・名サ変》(1) 周囲の状況・条件などによく合うことこと。また、よく合うように行動や考え方を変えること。「新しい環境にーーする」「ーー性に富む人」(2) 環境に応じて生物体の形態・機能・習性などが長い間に変化していくこと。また、その現象。

    I looked up the Kotonoha Corpus for descriptive evidence. Searching the dababase for "を適応する" retrieves three hits, all of which are likely the typo for 適用する. For comparison, "を適用する" has 489 hits. The ratio is so overwhelming that, if を適応する were not a mistake, it is still a very rare usage.
     

    Shiori Akaba

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    I think, in Japanese, that the passive form される/られる is not restricted to transitive verbs.
    "走られたな", "デートの途中で帰られた", "その成績で卒業されては困る", and so on...
    So, I think 適応される is not so bad.
     

    Flaminius

    coclea mod
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    Yes, Japanese has the so-called indirect passive. This is a construction that encapsulates an action in a full sentence (of the pattern S[O]V), and specifies the recipient of affected one by the action as the subject (S͛) of -(r)areru. The subject of the encapsulated action (S) is marked by -ni. I see that two of your examples fall into this category (I don't understand what 走られたな means):
    (宏さんは: S͛)デートの途中で(花子さんに: S)帰られた
    その成績で(君に: S)卒業されては困る
    If you take out the encapsulated actions as independent sentences, you will get:
    花子さんが帰った
    君が卒業する

    If 適応される is used as an indirect passive within the sentence at hand, a similar extraction should be possible as below:
    その構造が他の精霊たちにも適応されるのであれば
    <- 他の精霊たちもその構造に適応する
    I don't find this is a natural derivation.

    In my view it is as unnatural as passivising 登山者たちは五合目に到達した into:
    ??五合目は登山者たちに到達された。
    It is syntactically okay but has semantic difficulties; 1. The subject of the whole sentence is an inanimate object, and 2. thus, it cannot experience annoyance or inconvenience as subjects do in your two examples (in the 卒業 example, the annoyed or the inconvenienced is the professor or the university administrators).

    Understanding 他の精霊たちにも適応される with the indirect passive means that the subject of -(r)areru, 構造, is somehow annoyed by them. Unless it is treated like an animate noun in the forgoing part of the text, this understanding does not seem very plausible.
     
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