3 senteces expressing the same (I think?)

larshgf

Senior Member
Danish
Hello.
I wonder if these 3 sentences are equally used to express the fact "that I was bitten by a dog last night":

Ήμουν δαγκωμένος από έναν σκύλο χτες το βράδυ.
με δάγκωσε ένας σκύλος χτες το βράδυ.
δαγκώθηκα από έναν σκύλο χτες το βράδυ.

Or maybe they can be graded according to their use in everyday language in Greece?
(In Danish for example the last one, the passive, would be the most used way to express it).

BR Lars
 
  • Perseas

    Senior Member
    (1) "Ήμουν δαγκωμένος" & "είμαι δαγκωμένος" are alternative forms of the passive past perfect and present perfect, but they sound strange and you wouldn't use them.
    (2) 2 is the most idiomatic in Greek.
    (3) 3 is correct, but not used in real life conditions. You can use it in grammar exercises (passive < -- > active).
     

    larshgf

    Senior Member
    Danish
    Thank you!
    When the action is done to the subject in the sentence:
    Is it then possible to give some general clues regarding when to use passive, and when to use active?
     

    dmtrs

    Senior Member
    Greek
    Active voice is far more used than passive in spoken language, in fact gradually almost replacing it, I believe.

    -Passive is used in more formal situations, like on the news, newspapers, scientific texts etc.
    -It is used when the subject of the active voice would be really too vague οr general (without an agent):
    Προκλήθηκε πανικός. / Θεωρείται βέβαιο πως... / Λέγεται ότι... / Ο κόσμος ξεσηκώθηκε. / Tα αποθέματα εξαντλήθηκαν.
    -Of course, like in English, it is used when what needs to be stressed is rather the object of the active voice than the subject:
    Ο καλλιτέχνης επηρεάστηκε από... / Η επιδημία προκλήθηκε από... / Ο κόσμος ξεσηκώθηκε από τα νέα μέτρα.

    -It is also widely used to express the medium diathesis of verbs (explained in other threads some time ago):
    Τρυπήθηκα με τη βελόνα (not: από τη βελόνα) / Πλύθηκα / Ντύνομαι / Θα προσαρμοστώ...

    Maybe others could add more uses.
     

    Perseas

    Senior Member
    I agree with dmtrs. Passive voice is a complicated thing. It contains both the medium and passive diatheses.
    The verb "δαγκώνομαι" is widely used as medium and less as passive. A common use of it as medium is when expresses restrain or anger (e.g. Δαγκώθηκα όταν άκουσα την είδηση).
    Even if we choose another verb, say "κυνηγώ/κυνηγιέμαι", the sentence would be still more common with the verb in the active voice: "Με κυνήγησε ένας σκύλος" instead of "Κυνηγήθηκα από ένα σκύλο". An idiomatic use of the passive voice would be for example this one by the ΛΚΝ online dictionary: H αρμένικη μειονότητα κυνηγήθηκε πολύ από τους Tούρκους. Here the use is rather formal and metaphorical.
     
    Last edited:

    larshgf

    Senior Member
    Danish
    Thank you so much for the fine answers!

    The distiction between voice and diathesis is obviously essential to avoid "the confusion of terminology".

    The medium diathesis I understand is the same as the reflexive passive:
    Λούζομαι or (to clearify) λούζομαι μόνος μου.
    Then I guess that the reciprocal passive must be medium diathesis too:
    Αγαπιούνται πολύ (οι δύο τους)?
     
    Last edited:

    Perseas

    Senior Member
    The medium diathesis I understand is the same as the reflexive passive:
    Λούζομαι or (to clearify) λούζομαι μόνος μου.
    Then I guess that the receprocal passive must be medium diathesis too:
    Αγαπιούνται πολύ (οι δύο τους)?
    Yes, both "λούζομαι" and "αγαπιούνται" are medium.
     

    dmtrs

    Senior Member
    Greek
    (Exact translation: ) Ο κόσμος ξεσηκώθηκε από τα νέα μέτρα. = The people were stirred up by the new measures.
     
    < Previous | Next >
    Top