5 stem الفعل الخماسي

Jana337

Senior Member
čeština
Is there an intrinsic meaning to the verbs of the 5. stem? (Something like 2. stem - make someone do something.)

Also, could you list, say, 5 most common verbs of the 5. stem?

Many thanks,

Jana
 
  • Josh_

    Senior Member
    U.S., English
    Hello Jana,

    The derived forms are really not all that difficult once you get used to them. Here is a basic overview of them and there meanings:


    Form II – can denote causation or intensity
    past, present, verbal noun (maSdar)fa33al, yufa33il, taf3iil,

    Examples:
    kasara (Form I)– to break
    kassara – (Form II)to break into many pieces; smash

    kaana, yakuunu (Form I)– to be
    kawwina, yukawwina (Form II)– to cause to be; to create; to form

    Form III – denotes effort or involving another person
    faa3il, yufaa3il, mufaa3ala,

    Examples:
    saabiqa – compete with
    7aariba – wage war with

    Form IV – denotes causation
    af3al, yuf3il, if3aal,

    akhraja, yukhriju – to cause to go out; to let out

    Form V – reflexive or resultative of Form II
    tafa33al, yatafa33al, tafa33ul,

    3allama, yu3allimu (Form II) -- to teach
    ta3allama, yata3allamu (FormV) – to be taught; to learn

    kassara, yakassaru (Form II) – to break into many pieces; smash
    takassara, yatakassaru (form V) – to be caused to break; to break

    Form VI – reflexive of Form III and involving reciprocity
    tafaa3al, yatafaa3al, tafaa3ul,

    saabiqa, yusaabiqu (Form III) – compete with (some one)
    tasaabiqa, yatasaabiqu (Form VI) – to compete with each other

    7aariba, yu7aaribu (Form III) – to wage war with (some one)
    ta7aariba, yata7aaribu (FormVI) – to wage war with each other

    Form VII – passive or reflexive of Form I
    infa3al, yanfa3il, infa3aal,

    qaTa3a, yaqTa3u (Form I) – to cut off
    inqaTa3a, yanqaTi3u (Form VII) – to be cut off

    inbasaTa, yanbasiTu – to enjoy oneself


    Form VIII – reflexive of form I but also a wide range of other meanings
    ifta3al, yafta3il, ifti3aal,

    istalama, yastalimu – to receive
    i7tarama, ya7tarimu – to respect

    Form IX – denotes color and physical disability
    if3all, yaf3all, if3aall,

    iswadda, yaswaddu – to become black
    i7walla, ya7walla – to become crossieyed.

    Form X – can denote asking or doing for oneself or to considering
    istaf3al, yastaf3al, istif3aal,

    ista3mala, yasta3malu – to use
    ista2zana, yasta2zanu, -- to excuse oneself.

    Remember that these are just basic guidelines to meaning. There are, of course, many exceptions.



    For the five most common Form V verbs, maybe:

    ta3allama – to learn
    takassara – to break
    tazawwaja – get married
    takharraja – to graduate
    ta2akhkhara – to be late
     

    cherine

    Moderator
    Arabic (Egypt).
    Josh Adkins said:
    Form II – can denote causation or intensity
    [...] fa33ala, yufa33ilu, taf3iilan,
    [...]
    kawwana, yukawwinu [...]
    Form III – denotes effort or involving another person
    faa3al (faa3il is a noun not a verb), yufaa3ilu, mufaa3alatan,
    saabaqa – compete with
    7aaraba – wage war with
    Form IV – denotes causation
    af3ala, yuf3ilu, if3aalan,
    Form V – reflexive or resultative of Form II
    tafa33ala, yatafa33alu, tafa33ulan,
    kassara, yukassiru (Form II) – to break into many pieces; smash
    takassara, yatakassaru (form V) – to be caused to break; to break
    Form VI – reflexive of Form III and involving reciprocity
    tafaa3ala, yatafaa3alu, tafaa3ulan,
    saabaqa, yusaabiqu (Form III) – compete with (some one)
    tasaabaqa, yatasaabaqu (Form VI) – to compete with each other
    7aaraba, yu7aaribu (Form III) – to wage war with (some one)
    ta7aaraba, yata7aarabu (FormVI) – to wage war with each other
    Form VII – passive or reflexive of Form I
    infa3ala, yanfa3ilu, infi3aalan,
    qaTa3a, yaqTa3u (Form I) – to cut off
    inqaTa3a, yanqaTi3u (Form VII) – to be cut off
    inbasaTa, yanbasiTu – to enjoy oneself (this is more of colloquial Arabic, but inbasata means more : to extend)
    Form VIII – reflexive of form I but also a wide range of other meanings
    ifta3ala, yafta3ilu, ifti3aalan,
    istalama, yastalimu – to receive
    i7tarama, ya7tarimu – to respect
    Form IX – denotes color and physical disability (but not just that)
    if3alla, yaf3allu, if3aall (i'm not sure about if3aall, where did you get it from ?! do you have examples for it ?) I suggest if3ilaal
    imtadda, yamtaddu, imtidaadan - to expand
    inhadda, yanhaddu, haddan or inhidadan - to collapse
    iswadda, yaswaddu – to become black
    i7walla, ya7wallu – to become crossieyed.
    Form X – can denote asking or doing for oneself or to considering
    istaf3ala, yastaf3ilu, istif3aalan,

    ista3mala, yasta3milu – to use
    ista2zana, yasta2zinu, -- to excuse oneself, or to ask for permission.

    Remember that these are just basic guidelines to meaning. There are, of course, many exceptions. (can't agree more) :)
    Very good explanation and examples Josh. You only missed to say which forms are 3 stems, which are 4, which are 5 and which are 6. But the easier way to know is to simply count the letters of the past form of the verb.
     

    Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    Many thanks to both of you for such a comprehensive survey. I am going to print it out and hang on the wall:)

    To which extent are the forms preserved in spoken Arabic? I imagine that at least vowels are sacrificed, which, on the other hand, should not prevent me from being able to distinguish between them since they are formed by manipulating the root.

    Jana
     

    cherine

    Moderator
    Arabic (Egypt).
    I can't tell for sure the extent to which the forms are preserved in the spoken language, but i know for sure we use them all in a way or another, we even use them to "make new words" :) like in slang. We add the ا - س - ت to new words, slang words, and even arabized word to make them sound local.
    the ا - س - ت are called in Arabic 7uruuf az-ziyaada حروف الزيادة they are the letters added to the roots ف - ع - ل to form words. You'll notice that youreself if you go back to the examples given by Josh.
     
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