I agree, "take a break" is the usual verb. You can also "have a break." Someone that you work with might tell you to "go on a break" or "go on break" when they come to relieve you at your post. "Do a break" is definitely wrong. You can "be on break" if it is your time to take a break. If a student is away from school during the spring recess, he is on spring break.
A break is almost always a relatively short interruption in something--usually work, but it can be a long interruption. "He took a ten-year break from teaching to research cancer cures, then he returned to his professorship at the university."