If someone's mind has completely immerged into the worst memories of his life, and has lost track of the time.
Those memories brought a sheer haze of pain to him. In such case the pain isn't literally because it's not that he feels any pain at any particular part of his body.
Can in such case, the noun phrase " a haze of pain" be used?
I agree. I would reserve it for physical pain. But even then, I'd try to find another word or expression.
(You can reduce the size of pictures when you insert the into a post. Just left-click on the picture and grab it at one corner and drag it inwards until the picture is a more manageable/viewable size.)
... and the phrase also generally used in sentences involving vision. Driving the getaway car, he tried to see the road through a haze of pain caused by the bullet wound in his arm.
Trying to just make up random sentences based on an example of a phrase from a dictionary definition is often not very helpful