Adjectives not formed by nisbah suffix ي

HotIcyDonut

Senior Member
Russian - Russia
Some adjectives, i noticed, aren't formed by attaching nisba suffix ي to corresponding noun, but in other ways.

Let's say prophet: نبي . Prophetic would be نبوي.

Or world: عالم . Worldly would be علماني

Or judge: قاض . Judicial would be قضائي

Or brother: أخ . Brotherly would be أخوي (same goes for sisterly, motherly, fatherly and probably other adjectives regarding relatives).

There may be others, i listed the ones i could remember.

Why? Are there some rules, according to which adjectives are derived in non-standard way? Or there're no rules and there's just a list of exceptionally made adjectives for some nouns one must learn by memory?
 
  • analeeh

    Senior Member
    English - UK
    There are a few different things going on here. Nabawi and akhawi are approximately of the same kind - these are in fact formed with a nisba suffix, but because the words are 'defective' (i.e. their roots end in semivowels and not normal consonants) a /w/ surfaces.

    qaaDin > qaDaa2i is a normal nisba adjective - it just happens to be formed from qaDaa2 'jurisdiction' and not from qaaDin.

    As for 3aalam, there is a normal nisba adjective formed from it - 3aalami 'global'. 3almaani is indeed formed on a slightly different pattern, but it still has the nisba suffix -i.
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    As for 3aalam, there is a normal nisba adjective formed from it - 3aalami 'global'. 3almaani is indeed formed on a slightly different pattern, but it still has the nisba suffix -i.
    ʽālam and ʽalmānī are both borrowings from Aramaic. The formation of the latter is regular in Aramaic but irregular in Arabic.
     

    Arabic_999_Police

    Banned
    Arabic - Saudi Arabia
    ʽālam and ʽalmānī are both borrowings from Aramaic. The formation of the latter is regular in Aramaic but irregular in Arabic.
    no it's not, the word exists in several other semertic languages:
    Amharic: ዓለም: ‘alemi
    Hebrew: עוֹלָם: ‘oolam
    Arabic: ‘aalam
    notice all have a vowel after the l, while in Aramaic it's ‘almaa,
    No borrowing here
     

    Drink

    Senior Member
    English - New England, Russian - Moscow
    Arabic: ‘aalam
    notice all have a vowel after the l, while in Aramaic it's ‘almaa,
    No borrowing here
    Actually, in Aramaic it's `āləmā (and `ālam in the construct and absolute states), so there is a vowel after the l, even if ə is sometimes not pronounced. عالم is probably not borrowed from Aramaic, but علماني probably is (but was adapted to fit Arabic patterns better by shortening the first vowel).
     
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