"Adjectivisation" of nouns in modern greek

larshgf

Senior Member
Danish
Hello,

One thing (among a lot of other things) that makes greek difficult to understand/remember fo me is words that looks like each other. The typical thing is an adjective which derives from a noun. And also nouns which are derived from a "basic" noun.

A few examples:
γείτονας, γειτόνισσα (neighbour)
γειτονικός-ή-ό (neighbouring)
γειτονική πόλη (neighbouring town)
γειτονιά (neighbourhood)
γειτονία (neighbourhood)

φίλος, φίλη (friend)
φιλικός-ή-ό (friendly)
φιλία (friendship)

δύση η (west)
δυτικός-ή-ό (west…, western)
ανατολή η (east)
ανατολικός-ή-ό (east…, eastern)
βορράς ο (north)
βόρειος-α-ο (north…, northern)
νότος ο (south)
νότιος-α-ο south…, southern)

I wonder if som rules can be set up to clarify my "kaleidoscopic" brain.

Best Regards
Lars
 
  • larshgf

    Senior Member
    Danish
    I admit this is a vague and unspecific question. To specify a bit let me take the noun γείτονας:

    It seems to have a stem = γείτον
    (in fact I dont know if nouns have a stem?)


    γείτονας (neighbour)

    So in this example adjective i created by adding ικός-ή-ό - γειτονικός-ή-ό (neighbouring)
    for example: γειτονική πόλη (neighbouring town)

    Then the two derived nouns:
    γειτονιά (neighbourhood)
    γειτονία (neighbourhood)
    (any explanation why the stress is ιά in the first, and ία in the second?

    Maybe nothing can be said generally about words deriving from a "basic" noun?
     

    Perseas

    Senior Member
    Adjectives are derived from nouns, verbs, other adjectives, adverbs.
    To form an adjective from another word, you can add the adjectival ending to the stem of that word.
    For example:
    noun: τρόμος --> τρομερός.
    verb: εκλέγω --> εκλέξιμος.
    adjective: κοντός --> κοντούλης.
    adverb: χτες --> χτεσινός
    But it's not always possible to create an adjective. For example: noun τρόμος --> adjective *τρομινός <-- there is no such a word.

    Here's a concise table of some endings of adjectives in Mod. Greek. (There are more too, like -ερός, -ακός, -ούλης, έζος etc.).
    Source: Γλωσσική Διδασκαλία (Α Γυμνασίου): Ηλεκτρονικό Βιβλίο


    Καταλήξεις
    Παραδείγματα
    Εξαιρέσεις
    -αίος
    τυχαίος
    νέος
    -είος
    ανδρείος
    γελοίος, κρύος
    -ηρός
    ζωηρός
    αλμυρός, γλαφυρός, ισχυρός, οχυρός κ.ά.
    -ικός
    ειδικός
    θηλυκός, δανεικός κ.ά.
    -ιμος
    πόσιμος
    διάσημος, άσχημος, έτοιμος κ.ά.
    -ινός
    σημερινός
    ελεεινός, σκοτεινός, ταπεινός, υγιεινός, φωτεινός κ.ά.
    -ινος
    πέτρινος
    -ίσιος
    ποταμίσιος
    γνήσιος, ημερήσιος, Ιθακήσιος κ.ά.
    -λέος
    θαρραλέος
    -τέος
    διατηρητέος
    -ωπός
    χαρωπός
    -ωτός
    φτερωτός
     

    dmtrs

    Senior Member
    Greek
    γειτονιά (neighbourhood)
    γειτονία (neighbourhood)
    (any explanation why the stress is ιά in the first, and ία in the second?
    Γειτονιά means neighborhood.
    Γειτονία is the status of being situated close to somebody or something:

    Αυτή είναι μια ωραία γειτονιά.
    Η γειτονία με τους γονείς της είχε πλεονεκτήματα και μειονεκτήματα.
    Η γειτονία με την Τουρκία αποτελεί συχνά πηγή προστριβών.
    Η Βουλγαρία έστειλε βοήθεια στους σεισμόπληκτους της Ρουμανίας ως ένδειξη καλής γειτονίας.
     

    larshgf

    Senior Member
    Danish
    Thank you very much Perseas and dmtrs.
    The number of endings of the adjectives is far more numerous than I expexted. Pour pupils in the greek Γυμνασίου! A lot to learn!
    It would be great if the ending morphology of the derived nouns a priori could give a hint to the meaning of the word. But I guess that this is not the case. One just have to learn the meaning.
     
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