'Advanced' is better. It suggests something like 'sophisticated, developed to a high degree'. A college may put on a science course for advanced students, i,e, students who already know a lot of scence. 'His cancer is in an advanced state' - his cancer has become very serious. An army advances.
'Progressive' suggests making progress, although not necessarily in a positive way. Progressive political ideas are modern, liberal ideas. Cancer is a progressive disease - it gradually gets worse.