It's not the verb that's giving me trouble in your examples but the object. I had to think abut it a bit. In English, I think we would say "I want to aim/target this shot for the bin/wastebasket." In other words, it's the throw or shot that is being aimed, not the paper.
I'm interested in hearing what others have to say about this. I don't think I have it quite right yet.
It is used in this sense, but I think it's borrowed from military use of the word. Here are some examples:I don't think that 'target' can be used as a verb in this context. To target is practically synonymous with 'to aim' but is more generally used in the sense of directing at a group of people; e.g. 'this advertising campaign specifically targets the 19-25 age group.'