All IIR Languages: rape

marrish

Senior Member
اُردو Urdu
Dear all of the moment,

I've been hesitating for a long time, approximately for two years, to ask this question as due to international press reports of rape cases in India it made me think how it is addressed in the target languages and I wished to avoid being the one who brings this topic to attention on this forum.

Since I had have a long period of consideration I came to the conclusion, prompted by an Urdu article published in an Indian newspaper yesterday about a case of something which is not clear to me, and I think it's better to avoid the contents but I can share it with anyone on request however, in summary, which is necessary to proceed further with language matters it's a case of a teacher having committed the act of [Urdu] بدفعلی where the victim was a male student of a high school.

After this introduction, I would humbly request all those who are willing to participate to share their views and opinions about words that describe or define the act of rape.

This Urdu word which I mentioned reads bad-fi3lii بدفعلی'. Somewhere in the news in Hindi I found duShkarm दुष्कर्म being used which corresponds semantically as well as per word-forming with the Urdu word but I am not sure what is the exact meaning of it.

The obvious word for a rape in Hindi which I am familiar with is बलात्कार balaatkaar and I saw this word on some banners (on photographs) when scores of people were holding demonstrations but the most popular in my limited view is रेप 'rep'.

I haven't included Sanskrit but since it is the source of many words in Hindi, it can be revealing to discover whether any word or expression was used in that language.

Now when I come back to Urdu, the technical (actually not technical but juridical) term for a rape is زنا بالجبر zinaa bi-l-jabr which can be translated to 'fornication by force'.

I am ignorant of its usage in the popular parlance nor from the media so I think bad-fa3ilii is used perhaps instead.

Both bad-fa3ilii and duShkarm appear to be euphemisms.

As for Persian I am totally unaware of the usage so venturing into dictionaries where different definitions or equivalents are bound to exist seems a risky endeavour. The request for the Persian usage is motivated by my desire to compare it with Urdu.


No bad feelings please but it happens and things should be named first in order to fight them.
 
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  • Treaty

    Senior Member
    Persian
    In Persian تجاوز (جنسی)ـ tajāvoz (e jensi) is usually used for "rape". I think the main legal terms are تجاوز به عنف (tajāvoz be anf) and زنای به عنف (zenā-ye be anf) though these terms are only used for extramarital rape. I'm not sure of legal terminology or recognition for marital rape. Also, there is لواط به عنف levāt be anf to indicate (male) homosexual rape.
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Thank you, even if you said you were not sure you provided a range of different terms. I am unaware of the term for marital rape but it can be "izdiwaajii" and then what, zinaa doesn't apply. izdiwaajii jinsii tajaawuz or tashaddud perhaps.

    Thank you for the wide coverage. If you were so kind as to shed light on the meaning of عنف ?
     

    Cilquiestsuens

    Senior Member
    French
    Thank you, even if you said you were not sure you provided a range of different terms. I am unaware of the term for marital rape but it can be "izdiwaajii" and then what, zinaa doesn't apply. izdiwaajii jinsii tajaawuz or tashaddud perhaps.

    Thank you for the wide coverage. If you were so kind as to shed light on the meaning of عنف ?

    عنف looks like the Arabic word 3unf meaning violence.
     

    Treaty

    Senior Member
    Persian
    Thank you, even if you said you were not sure you provided a range of different terms. I am unaware of the term for marital rape but it can be "izdiwaajii" and then what, zinaa doesn't apply. izdiwaajii jinsii tajaawuz or tashaddud perhaps.

    In Persian it is usually rendered as تجاوز زناشویی and تجاوز به همسر but because of lack of specific regulation in this case, I think there is no official term for it in Persian.

    عنف looks like the Arabic word 3unf meaning violence.

    My bad. I've also remembered its pronunciation as 3unf (onf in Persian) but just to be sure I checked Loghatnameh and found it as anf there. Probably it is a mistake in the Persian dictionary.
     

    Jervoltage

    Senior Member
    [...]My bad. I've also remembered its pronunciation as 3unf (onf in Persian) but just to be sure I checked Loghatnameh and found it as anf there. Probably it is a mistake in the Persian dictionary.

    As indicated in Loghatnaame-ye Dehkhodaa, the standard pronunciation is 'onf. The alternative pronunciations (i.e. 'anf, 'enf) are used if called for by vazn in verse, etc. You may have looked up the wrong عنف.
     

    Treaty

    Senior Member
    Persian
    As indicated in Loghatnaame-ye Dehkhodaa, the standard pronunciation is 'onf. The alternative pronunciations (i.e. 'anf, 'enf) are used if called for by vazn in verse, etc. You may have looked up the wrong عنف.

    I found there are two entries for عنف in Loghatnameh (this with only anf, and this with all three pronunciations). In my previous posts I only looked the first one which appeared atop my search results for عنف.
     

    Jervoltage

    Senior Member
    I found there are two entries for عنف in Loghatnameh (this with only anf, and this with all three pronunciations). In my previous posts I only looked the first one which appeared atop my search results for عنف.

    I see. Anyway, the footnote I referred to seems to be lacking in the link you provided. Here it is: ١. در تداول فارسي ، معمولاً به ضم اول تلفظ ميشود
     

    Sheikh_14

    Senior Member
    English- United Kingdom, Urdu, Punjabi
    For euphemistic representation azdawaajii zabardastii ought to be enough. Zabardastii karna is a common euphemism for the act. There is no need for the embarrassment its a perfectly understandable question. What are the literary idioms present for the act, it is simply not possible that they are none. Urdu literature like any other is equitably bold. Would 'unf be acceptable in Urdu do you think if so what pronunciation would you designate it for roughness etc? Balatkaar (is it not balatkaar instead of balaatkaar the initial a sound isn't lengthened at least not in common speak) is widely understood by Urdu speakers as well but not used in the media.
     
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    Cilquiestsuens

    Senior Member
    French
    The literary register of Urdu has many words. Let me quote two of them; still apparently used on sites as respectable as the BBC Urdu:

    1. عصمت دری or 3ismat-darii (You can if you want, check this link.) I have the feeling this word is more used in Indian Urdu. I don't think it is much used in Pk. It is by the way a very precise / graphic word that can barely be called a euphemism.

    2. ٖآبرو ریزی or aabruu-rezii (check this link). This word is more literary and is not only euphemistic as you can understand, but vague enough to potentially mean other things too.


    Other expressions can be used to the same effect.
     
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    Cilquiestsuens

    Senior Member
    French
    For euphemistic representation azdawaajii zabardastii .

    It is not *azdawaajii but izdiwaajii (check it here if you doubt)

    izdiwaajii tashaddud isn't less precise and it sounds better.

    If you want to be even more precise, you can say: jinsii tashaddud which makes much more sense than *izdiwaajii zabardastii.
     

    mundiya

    Senior Member
    Hindi, English, Punjabi
    In Hindi, besides zabardastii karnaa, another alternate or indirect way of saying it is izzat luuTnaa/chhiinnaa/lenaa. I am hesitant to use the label euphemism because to me there are no mild phrases for this vicious and barbaric act.
     
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    Cilquiestsuens

    Senior Member
    French
    Calling a word referring to something bad a euphemism (or in this case, an understatement) never made anyone condone it. Quite the opposite, all it says is that the word is not strong enough to describe that thing.

    By the way, none of the expressions you suggested can be described as euphemisms.
     

    mundiya

    Senior Member
    Hindi, English, Punjabi
    Yes, I know. But I noticed a few people using the word euphemism for the examples they provided, so I was commenting on that.
     

    eskandar

    Moderator
    English (US)
    1. عصمت دری or 3ismat-darii (You can if you want, check this link.) I have the feeling this word is more used in Indian Urdu. I don't think it is much used in Pk.
    I can't speak for Pakistani Urdu as I'm not as familiar with its usage, but this is indeed the term I have seen most often in Indian Urdu newspapers and articles.
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    My problem that I am familiar with Urdu in general and don't make a difference between "Pakistani Urdu" and "Indian Urdu" - usually. In Pakistan the term 3ismat-darii is known and used for a rape but not frequently as far as I can say. It means more of 'a defloration'. Another term which has many connotations but the one of rape is understood without any mistake in certain situations is زیادتی 'ziyaadatii'. Much more used than 3ismat-darii. aabruu rezii is of course there as well as the verb 3izzat luuTnaa.
     

    Horned Owl

    Senior Member
    India - Hindi & English
    In Hindi, dushkarm is a word that the press might use; women usually say galat kaam.
    e.g. Usne mere saath galat kaam kiya.
     

    Sheikh_14

    Senior Member
    English- United Kingdom, Urdu, Punjabi
    Is 'unf used at all in Urdu or would it at least be considered acceptable for rough treatment/violence, as a growing language with an expanding vocabulary?
     

    James Bates

    Banned
    Urdu
    In Persian تجاوز (جنسی)ـ tajāvoz (e jensi) is usually used for "rape". I think the main legal terms are تجاوز به عنف (tajāvoz be anf) and زنای به عنف (zenā-ye be anf) though these terms are only used for extramarital rape. I'm not sure of legal terminology or recognition for marital rape. Also, there is لواط به عنف levāt be anf to indicate (male) homosexual rape.

    Shouldn't it be لواطِ بہ عنف levaat-e be anf, just like zenaa-ye be anf? The same goes for tajaavoz-e be anf.
     
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