All Slavic languages: Kinship

Discussion in 'Other Slavic Languages' started by Maja, Jul 26, 2006.

  1. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    I was answering thread named "marriage relations", and I saw that Russians have similar names for relatives to does that we have in Serbian and I was wondering if that is the case with other Slavic languages?

    Thank you all in advance!
  2. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    Lets start with Serbian. Our language is very rich when it comes to family relations. It has a different name for almost every member of the family, including in-laws.Here it is:

    majka (мајка) - mother
    otac (отац) - father
    ćerka (ћерка) - daughter
    sin (син) - son

    unuka (унука) - grand-daughter
    unuk (унук) - grand-son

    brat (брат) - brother
    sestra (сестра) - sister
    deda (деда) - grandfather
    baba (баба) - grandmother
    tetka (тетка) - mother's / father's sister
    teča (теча) - husband of father's/mother's sister
    ujak (ујак) - mother's brother
    ujna (ујна) - wife of mother's brother
    stric (стриц) - father's brother
    strina (стрина) - wife of father's brother

    zet (зет) - daughter's / sister's husband
    snaja or snaha (снаја/снаха)- son's / brother's wife
    prijatelj (пријатељ) - father of child's spouse
    prija (прија) - mother of child's spouse

    svekar (свекар) - husband's father

    svekrva (свекрва) - husband's mother
    dever (девер) - husband' s brother
    jetrva (јетрва) - wife of husband's brother
    zaova (заова) - husband' s sister

    tast (таст) - wife's father
    tašta (ташта) - wife's mother
    šurak (шурак) - wife's brother
    šurnjaja (шурњаја) - wife of wife's brother
    svastika (свастика) - wife's sister
    pašenog (пашеног) - husband of wife's sister
  3. Insider Senior Member

    Ukraine (Ukrainian) know, there are some similarities between Ukrainian and Serbian languages, as I see. I'll try to write in Ukrainian a "family branch".

    мама [mama] - mother
    тато [tato] - father
    син [syn] - son
    дочка [dochka] - daughter
    внук [vnyk] - grand-son
    внучка [vnychka] - grand-daughter

    брат [brat] - brother
    сестра [sestra] - sister
    дідо [dido] - grandfather
    баба [baba] - grandmother
    вуй(ко) [vuj(ko)] -mother's brother
    вуйна [vujna] - wife of mother's brother
    стрий [stryj] - father's brother
    стрийна [stryjna] - wife of father's brother
  4. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    matka - mother
    otec - father
    dcera) - daughter
    syn - son
    vnučka - grand-daughter
    vnuk - grand-son

    bratr - brother
    sestra - sister
    dědeček, děda - grandfather
    babička - grandmother
    teta - mother's / father's sister
    strýc - husband of father's/mother's sister
    strýc - mother's brother
    teta - wife of mother's brother
    strýc - father's brother
    teta - wife of father's brother

    zeť - daughter's husband
    švagr - sister's husband
    snacha - son's wife
    švagrová - brother's wife
    N/A - father of child's spouse
    N/A - mother of child's spouse

    tchán - husband's father
    tchýně - husband's mother
    švagr - husband' s brother
    švagrová - wife of husband's brother
    švagrová - husband' s sister

    tchán - wife's father
    tchyně - wife's mother
    švagr - wife's brother
    švagrová - wife of wife's brother
    švagrová - wife's sister
    švagr - husband of wife's sister

    Oh my, it is so complicated in Serbian! :) Czech is very economical.

  5. übermönch

    übermönch Senior Member

    Warum wohne ich bloß in so einem KAFF?
    World - 1.German, 2.Russian, 3.English
    The czech word for brother sound much like the words for it in other indoeuropean languages (frater, bruder). Interessting if it was like that in protoslavic. Russian words are indeed similar, but i can't recall any complicated relation words. They're very archaic, but they do exist.
  6. Thomas1

    Thomas1 Senior Member

    polszczyzna warszawska
    Don't they =
    And btw is there any difference in spelling between husband's and wife's mother or it's just a tiny typo (tchýně vs, tchyně), please?
    Indeed, I think I'd wind up guessing who's who. :D Polish is very much alike Czech in this respect, it's much simpler than in Serbian. :)
    matka (mama) - mother
    ojciec (tata) - father
    córka - daughter
    syn - son
    wnuczka - grand-daughter
    wnuk - grand-son
    brat - brother
    siostra - sister
    dziadek - grandfather
    babka (babcia) - grandmother
    ciotka (ciocia) - mother's / father's sister
    wuj (wujek) - husband of father's/mother's sister
    wuj - mother's brother
    ciotka - wife of mother's brother
    stryj* - father's brother
    stryjenka* - wife of father's brother
    *in practice no one uses them nowadys, we use wuj, ciotka respectively
    zięć - daughter's husband
    szwagier - sister's husband
    synowa- son's wife
    szwagierka - brother's wife
    teść - father of child's spouse
    teściowa - mother of child's spouse
    teść - husband's father
    teściowa - husband's mother
    szwagier - husband' s brother
    szwagierka - wife of husband's brother
    szwagierka - husband' s sister
    teść - wife's father
    teściowa - wife's mother
    szwagier - wife's brother
    szwagierka - wife of wife's brother
    szwagierka - wife's sister
    szwagier - husband of wife's sister
    As for teść/teściowa these words are rather formal and the couple usually use tata/mama respectively.
  7. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    I don't think so. The latter group is from the viewpoint of the young couple, the former one from the viewpoint of the parents. We do not have a word that captures the relationship between his parents and her parents. I hope I understood Maja correctly. :)

    Tchýně is correct, the other word has a typo. :eek:

  8. cajzl Senior Member

    The Czech form bratr with r came from Protoslavic.


    synovec - brother's/sister's son
    neť (neteř) - brother's/sister's daughter

    we sometimes use ujec beside strýc
  9. werrr Senior Member

    I think also

    synovec - son of spouse's sibling
    neť (neteř) - daughter of spouse's sibling
    Only from mother's branch of family, correct?

    Cousins are missing also. In Czech (by using previous definitions because of increasing number of possible combinations):

    sestřenice - parent's "neteř" (=niece)
    bratranec - parent's "synovec" (=nephew)
  10. janek Member

    Warsaw, Poland
    Polish, Poland
    There is another word in Polish for husband's mother, almost obsolete now, but still used in some families (in mine, for example): świekra. This is also quite formal.
    We also have:
    bratowa = brother's wife
    kuzyn = cousin (m)
    kuzynka = cousin (f)
    krewny/krewna = a blood-relative (m/f)
    powinowaty/powinowata= a non-blood relative (like our sister's husband's mother) (m/f)
  11. skye Senior Member


    mama - mother
    oče - father
    hčerka/hči - daughter
    sin - son
    vnukinja - grand-daughter
    vnuk - grand-son

    brat - brother
    sestra - sister
    dedek - grandfather
    babica - grandmother
    teta - aunt
    stric - uncle

    zet - daughter's husband
    snaha - son's wife

    tast - husband's or wife's father
    tašča - husband's or wife's mother
    svak - husband's or wife's brother or sister's husband
    svakinja - husband's or wife's sister or brother's wife

    Words like ujec, ujna and strina also existed in Slovenian at some point, but they are not used anymore.

  12. cajzl Senior Member

    No, I think it is not defined, but you can call them as you want.

    It seems that the Czech and Slovenian approaches are very similar (I believe cousin/nephew/niece also exist in Slovenian).
  13. cajzl Senior Member

    Nothing is perfect.

    Husband of husband's sister is missing in the Serbian list. :p

    Also the Serbian term svastika is very strange.
  14. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    Yes, because I couldn't find the right term. Some say it is : zet (зет).

    Hmm, yes but it is an old word and it has nothing to do with the Nazis! Unless one has bad relations with one's svastika!!! :D
  15. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    The discussion about svastika was moved here. :)

  16. Anatoli Senior Member

    Melbourne, Australia
    Native: русский (Russian), home country: English
    As no-one posted Russian kinship terms, here's my list of most common ones:

    отец – father
    мать – mother
    папа – dad
    мама – mum
    родители – parents
    отчим – stepfather
    мачеха – stepmother
    тесть (wife’s father), свёкр, свекор (husband’s father) – father–in–law
    тёща (wife’s mother), свекровь (wife’s mother) – mother–in–law
    брат – brother
    сестра – sister
    двоюродный брат – cousin
    двоюродная сестра – cousin
    сын – son
    дочь – daughter
    дедушка – grandfather
    бабушка – grandmother
    муж – husband
    жена – wife
    дядя – uncle
    тётя – aunt
    племянник – nephew
    племянница – niece
    ребёнок – child
    дети – children
    внук – grandson
    внучка – granddaughter
    семья – family

    some more less frequently used terms (native Russian make mistakes in them!), explanations in Russian:
    зять – муж дочери, муж сестры, муж золовки
    сноха – жена сына
    деверь – брат мужа
    шурин – брат жены
    золовка – сестра мужа
    свояченица – сестра жены
    свояк – муж свояченицы
  17. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    Thank you all for your kind replies!
  18. Thomas1

    Thomas1 Senior Member

    polszczyzna warszawska
    This phenomenon has been bugging me since I read your reply and I asked my mom about that, she confirms what you wrote. Teść/teściowa are not used in these relations in Poland. I also looked it up in a dictionary and that's true. :eek: I could hardly believe that since in my family the two mother-in-laws used to call "teściowa" one another. I wonder how it is with other Polish families.:confused:
  19. cajzl Senior Member

    It is usual to call a person from the viewpoint of someone else.

    For example, my sister's husband called his mother-in-law "babička/bába" (= grandma, e.g. "Přišla bába!"). Even my sister called our mother "babička". It was from the viewpoint of their little sons.
  20. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    In Serbian, I would call my husband's parents "svekar/свекар" ( his father ) and "
    svekrva /свекрва" (his mother).
    My husband would call my parents "tast/таст" (my father) and "tašta/ташта" (my mother).

    But our parents would address each other as "
    prijatelji/пријатељи", that is, my parents would address my husband's father as "prijatelj/пријатељ" and my husband's mother as "prija/прија" and vice-versa.
  21. The same is in Croatian; but I'm not shure about all of them.

    majka - mother
    otac - father
    kći - daughter
    sin - son
    unuka - grand-daughter
    unuk - grand-son

    brat - brother
    sestra - sister
    djed - grandfather
    baka - grandmother
    tetka - mother's / father's sister
    ujak - mother's brother
    ujna - wife of mother's brother
    stric - father's brother
    strina - wife of father's brother

    zet - daughter's / sister's husband
    snaha - son's / brother's wife
    prijatelj - father of child's spouse
    prija - mother of child's spouse

    svekar - husband's father
    svekrva - husband's mother
    djever - husband' s brother

    tast - wife's father

    ...about the others I don't know:eek: :(
  22. venenum

    venenum Senior Member

    Middle of Nowhere

    In addition to this (you have forgotten some family members):

    tetak - husband of mother's sister
    punac - wife's father
    punica - wife's mother

    nećak - son of your sibbling/spouse's sibbling
    nećaka - daughter of your sibbling/spous'es sibbling

    bratić - son of your parent's sibbling
    sestrična - daughter of your parent's sibbling

    šogor - spouse's brother/sister's husband -> brother in law
    šogorica - spouse's sister/brother's wife -> sister in law

    There are probably some other expressions for the nuances of the kinship, but they are almost extinct - you can come accross them only in some old books.

  23. Sophia211 New Member

    I thought I'd put the Bulgarian ones as well, since no one else did.

    майка - mother
    баща - father
    мама - mom
    татко, тати/-е – dad
    син – son
    дъщеря – daughter
    сестра - sister
    брат – brother
    батко – older brother
    кака – older sister
    леля - father's sister, mother's sister
    чичо - uncle *
    вуйчо – mother’s brother **
    вуйна – wife of mother’s brother **
    свако – husband of mother’s sister **
    стрина, стринка – wife of father’s brother
    внук - grandson
    внучка - granddaughter
    братовчед – cousin (male)
    братовчедка – cousin (female)
    племенник – nephew
    племенница – niece
    съпруг - husband; мъж – man, also husband (colloquial)
    съпруга - wife; жена – woman, also wife (colloquial)
    снаха – son’s wife; brother’s wife
    зет – daughter’s husband; sister’s husband
    заврян зет - a man who lives in the house of his parents-in-law Jß not sure if this isn’t only used as a joke, since the man is not supposed to live with his wife’s family
    свекър – husband’s father
    свекърва – husband’s mother
    тъст – wife’s father
    тъща – wife’s mother
    етърва – wife of husband’s brother
    зълва – husband’s sister
    девер – husband’s brother
    шурей – wife’s brother
    баджанак – husband of wife’s sister
    сват – father of child’s spouse
    сватя, свата – mother of child’s spouse

    семейство – family
    родители – parents
    дете - child
    деца – children
    внуче - grandchild
    внуци – grandchildren

    * not sure exactly what kinds of "uncles" that would include
    ** not quite sure about these; i got them from our own family's relatives' names

    The terms батко, кака, чичо, леля, баба, дядо are also used by children when addressing any older person, depending on their age. For example, the neighbours' five year old kid would call me "кака" since I'm only in my 20's. Is this common with any other Slavic languages? Also, are there words for older siblings in any of them?

    Thank you!
  24. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    Yeah, we also have the term "prizetko/призетко" for a man who lives with wife's family, but it can be a bit offensive.

    Well in Serbian, children address adult men as "čika/чика" and women as "teta/тета". They can also call old men "deka/дека" and old women "baka/бака" but it is to be avoided since you never know if someone would get offended (especially women :))

    No, we just say for brother: "stariji/старији" (older) аnd "mlađi/млађи"; for sister "starija/старијa" and "mlađa/млађa".
    Yeah, I know this expression :)!!!

    This, however, I never heard of :).
    We use them too:
    bratanac/братанац - brother's son
    bratanica/братаница - brother's daughter
    sestrić/сестрић - sister's son
    sestričina/сестричина - sister's daughter.
  25. Maja

    Maja Senior Member

    Binghamton, NY
    Serbian, Serbia
    Thank you all for your kind replies. I know the posts were rather long ... :)
    I have to say that my presumption, which was the reason to start this thread in the first place, have confirmed. A lot of genealogical vocabulary is similar in many of the Slavic languages, so it is safe to say that it must all come from Proto-Slavic.

  26. Branko1970 New Member

    Netherlands Serbian
    Serbs and their ancestors
    0. Sin, cerka ... ... ... ... Children
    1. Otac, majka ... ... ... ... Parentss
    3. Pradeda, prababa ... ... .. Great parents
    4. Chukundeda, Chukunbaba ... .Next older generation
    5. Navrdeda, navrbaba ... .... Next older generation
    6. Kurdjel, kurdjela ... ... ... Next older generation
    7. Askurdjel, askurdjela ... . Next older generation
    8. Kurdjun, kurdjuna ... ... . Next older generation
    9. Kurlebalo, kurlebala ... ... Next older generation
    10 Sukurdol, sukurdola ... .. Next older generation
    11 Sudepach, sudepacha ... Next older generation
    12 Pardjupan, pardjupana ... Next older generation
    13 Ozhmikura, ozhmikurka ... Next older generation
    14 Kurajber, kurajbera ... ... Next older generation
    15 Sajkatava, sajkatavka ... Next older generation
    16 Beli orao, bela orlica ... .. Next older generation
    16 Beli orao, bela orlica ... .. Next older generation
  27. dudasd

    dudasd Senior Member

    Maja omitted an important information - that the older variant of "svastika" is svast (and the older: svast' ), of the same origin as svak (svojak).

    Also, I don't expect to see "pašenog" in other Slavic languages, because it's pure Turkish word (bacanak).
  28. skye Senior Member

    I noticed something interesting in how speakers of my dialect sometimes refer to people outside the immediate family. They hardly use anything but son, daughter, sister, brother, mother and father. Her niece becomes her sister's daughter and even his grandson becomes his son's son. :D I see that it usually happens when people are trying to explain some very complicated relations between others and I guess it's just easier to follow the train of thought that way.
  29. Mac_Linguist Senior Member

    English and Macedonian
    This is also common in Macedonia. Adult men refer to older women as "mother" (мајко!).

Share This Page