alumnus, alumna, alumni, alumnae

Alfaaz

Senior Member
English
Background: relevant quotes from Urdu: Alumni
iskander e azam said:
Also is the word alumnus found in Urdu or are there older Persian and Arabic equivalents?
Other possible options for alumni, alumnae, graduates, etc.:
  • فارغ التحصیل طَلبہ و طالبات
  • سابق طالبِ علم
  • متخرِّج و متخرِّجہ | متخرِّجین و متخرِّجات
  • فاضل و فاضلہ | جمع: فُضَلاء
  • سَنَد یافتگان
مُتَخَرَّج

(جدید) سندیافتہ ، فارغ التحصیل ، گریجویٹ ۔
Questions:
  • What words are used in Arabic for alumnus, alumna, alumni, and alumnae?
    • Is there any difference between متخرج وخریج?
      • Do these words have other قدیم meanings (related to expulsion, removal, etc.) and/or are they recently coined words?
    • Would the feminine forms be متخرجة ومتخرجات?
  • What is the feminine plural form of فاضلة?
 
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  • Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    Is there any difference between متخرج وخریج?
    متخرّج is the active participial (اسم فاعل) of تخرّج.

    خريّج is what he is called, that is, a graduate. It can also mean alumnus in certain contexts.

    • Do these words have other قدیم meanings (related to expulsion, removal, etc.) and/or are they recently coined words?

    It's derived from the root خرج = to go out, to leave. I don't know how old it is but I think it's at least relatively new.
    • What is the feminine plural form of فاضلة?

    فاضلات
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    Thanks for all of the informative answers everyone!
    Mahaodeh said:
    متخرّج is the active participial (اسم فاعل) of تخرّج.
    In light of your explanation, would the following be correct?
    • mutaxarrij - one who graduates (confers a degree upon) someone
    • mutaxarraj - one who has been granted graduation/given a degree
    Based on patterns that seem similar: muHaiyyir (one who astonishes) / muHaiyyar (one who is astonished); mutafaHHiS (inquisitor, etc.) / mutafaHHaS (inquired, etc.); musta3mil (user) / musta3mal (used); mutarjim (translator; interpreter) / mutarjam (translated; interpreted).

    Or does متخرّج not follow the aforementioned pattern?
    Mahaodeh said:
    خريّج is what he is called, that is, a graduate.
    Does this suggest that متخرّج cannot be used to refer to a graduate...? It is currently listed in Almaany (here), Hans Wehr (here), and WRF (here).
    Mahaodeh said:
    It can also mean alumnus in certain contexts.
    elroy said:
    خرّيج is simply the word for both "graduate" and "alumnus." Arabic doesn't have two different terms.
    With respect to alumnus and graduate in English, are both terms not usually* synonymous? *A potential difference: According to some definitions and at some institutions as well, one doesn't have to actually graduate to be considered an alumnus/alumna. Are both of you referring to this point?
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    And خرّيج is اسم مفعول from the verb خرَّج
    Actually, خريّج is صيغة مبالغة.

    اسم المفعول هو مُخَرّج بالتشديد والفتح, a word that I have never seen used because the verb تخرّج is intransitive and does not have an object.

    Or does متخرّج not follow the aforementioned pattern?
    It does, your understanding is correct.

    Does this suggest that متخرّج cannot be used to refer to a graduate...?
    It can because the meanings of the two words overlap. خريّج صيغة مبالغة بمعنى اسم الفاعل so technically they mean more or less the same thing with خريّج having a stronger emphasis on what he is, while متخرج is mostly used to emphasise 'where he graduated' or 'what he did'. For example, if I wanted to say 'he graduated from the School of Arts' I would say: متخرج من كلية الآداب; if I wanted to say 'he is a School of Arts graduate' I would say: خريّج كلية الآداب.

    Having said that, it's not wrong if you use one instead of the other.

    With respect to alumnus and graduate in English, are both terms not usually* synonymous?
    Yes, I understand that. In Arabic though, there is no word for alumnus so the word for gradate is used loosely in this case. A new word might be coined in the future, but up to this day I haven't seen one that has 'caught on' yet :). (actually, I haven't seen one at all)
     
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    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    I thought that at first but I found it اسم مفعول
    I would really like to say that 'they know better than I do', but I just can't in this particular case! On the one hand, it does not follow the proper form of اسم المفعول, which is very simple and we can easily form. On the other, فعّيل is one of the common forms of صيغة المبالغة. I would understand if they said صيغة مبالغة بمعنى اسم المفعول, which is possible, but not just saying that it's اسم مفعول. Note that they did not mention where they got it from.

    Also note that in the same page, معجم اللغة العربية المعاصر says: صفة ثابتة للمفعول من خرّج. This of course makes sense because صيغة المبالغة in the end is a form of صفة (although not صفة إعرابيا).

    I'd like to point out that I did not consider the verb خرّج, only تخرّج; which is of course a shortcoming on my part that lead to a mistake in my response:
    اسم المفعول هو مُخَرّج بالتشديد والفتح, a word that I have never seen used because the verb تخرّج is intransitive and does not have an object.
    The first and the second part of the sentence are not related so my conclusion is irrelevant because the verb we are talking about is خرّج, which is transitive!

    Sorry for that!
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    I'd like to revise what I said here based on Sun Shine's evidence:

    It can because the meanings of the two words overlap. خريّج صيغة مبالغة بمعنى اسم الفاعل so technically they mean more or less the same thing
    I'm not so confident any more that خريّج has the meaning of اسم الفاعل. However, it still refers to the same person and has more or less the same meaning as متخرّج. The reason for this is because فاعل تخرّج هو نفسه مفعول خرّج لآن الفعل تخرّج هو فعل مطاوعة لخرّج; so whether it has the meaning of the active participial of تخرّج or the passive participial of خرّج, the rest of my answer stands true because they refer to the same entity.
     

    Sun-Shine

    Senior Member
    Arabic (Egypt)
    On the other, فعّيل is one of the common forms of صيغة المبالغة.
    It's فَعِيل without shadda , the other one with shadda is فَعّال
    Also note that in the same page, معجم اللغة العربية المعاصر says: صفة ثابتة للمفعول من خرّج. This of course makes sense because صيغة المبالغة in the end is a form of صفة (although not صفة إعرابيا).
    What does صفة ثابتة mean?
     

    Sun-Shine

    Senior Member
    Arabic (Egypt)
    The reason for this is because فاعل تخرّج هو نفسه مفعول خرّج لآن الفعل تخرّج هو فعل مطاوعة لخرّج
    I didn't get it.:confused:
    Do you mean اسم المفعول والفاعل كلاهما واحد?
    اسم الفاعل من تخرّج is متخرِّج
    اسم المفعول من خرّج is مُخَرَّج
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    It's فَعِيل without shadda
    Actually, it's فِعّيل - مكسور الفاء والعين ومشدد العين مثل سكّير وصدّيق; it's a less common form than فعيل وفعّال but it's still proper and attested in Classical Arabic.
    What does صفة ثابتة mean?
    It means a trait that is permanent as opposed to temporary like sleepy and hungry. صيغ المبالغة تعطي معاني الثبات أو التكرار أو الشدّة أو كلها معا.
    I didn't get it.:confused:
    أقصد أن تخرّج فعل مطاوعة من خرّج أي: خرّجت الجامعةُ الطالبَ فتخرّج الطالبُ. فالفاعل في خرّج هو الجامعة والمفعول به هو الطالب. في تخرّج يكون الفاعل هو الطالب ولا مفعول له لأنه فعل لازم (أفعال المطاوعة كلها لازمة لهذا السبب)
    القصد من الكلام أن النتيجة واحدة، المقصود هو الطالب في كل الأحوال سواء كانت صيغة المبالغة بمعنى اسم المفعول من خرّج أو بمعنى اسم الفاعل من تخرّج

    By the way, I checked a few sites, I didn't find any that say that صيغة المبالغة قد تكون بمعنى اسم المفعول. However, I can't depend on that because even if the website is dependable, this doesn't mean that it's comprehensive; it may mostly be بمعنى اسم الفاعل but it also might be similar to الصفات المشبهة that are mostly بمعنى اسم الفاعل but can in some cases be بمعنى اسم المفعول similar to جريح وقتيل بمعنى مجروح ومقتول.
     
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