and seeing my certificate of exchange,


Senior Member
Hi friends, this is from Colonel Jack, by Daniel Defoe (1722)

I lived single, indeed, and in lodgings, but I began to be very well known, and though I had subscribed my name only "Jack" to my
particular correspondent, yet the French, among whom I lived near a year, as I have said, not understanding what Jack meant, called me
Monsieur Jacques and Colonel Jacques, and so gradually Colonel Jacque. So I was called in the certificate of exchanging me with the other prisoner, so that I went so also into Flanders; upon which, and seeing my certificate of exchange, as above, I was called Colonel Jacques in England by my friend who I called correspondent.

my Question: What I did not understand here: who is seeing? what relevance to being called Colonel Jack by his friend?
  • Keith Bradford

    Senior Member
    English (Midlands UK)
    It's a rather complicated (and not very correct) link. It means "my friend and correspondent saw my certificate of exchange which named me as "Colonel Jacques", and called me Colonel Jacques in England.


    Senior Member
    English - England
    It’s confusing. But it seems to mean that the correspondent had previously only known him as “Jack” (which is how Jack signed his letters) – until he saw the prisoner exchange document, on which Jack’s name was given as Colonel Jacque/s.

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