No: I've never seen a word 'comfortability' - if it existed, it is more likely to mean "the ability to be comforted (consoled)", from the verb 'comfort' - make someone feel better after something bad has happened.
The ordinary adjective 'comfortable' corresponds to the noun 'comfort'. These are when you are, for example, in a soft chair. (So the noun is practically unrelated to the verb in meaning.) You could say: Will anyone's comfort enrich the world? That means basically the same.
"Comfortability" is not yet accepted (thank heaven) as a real word. I don't know that I really understand your quoted sentence from the book, but as it stands I'd paraphrase to "If someone is comfortable (living an easy life) does that enrich the world ?" The implication would be that a life of adversity is more profitable for mankind as a whole.
(Beaten to it by entangledbank as I sat dreaming over the question).