'Apposition with of-phrases' is certainly a grammatical term as it has been used by Quirk et al., though I am not sure you find it a common term. I think it is possible to say 'the city of Rome' illustrates this construction.
It's sometimes called 'appositive genitive'.
This is from the Wiki article -there are better articles I think because it cropped up here a week or two ago. You might be able to track that thread down using the dictionary.
In several languages, the same syntax that is used to express such relations as possession can also be used appositively. Examples include:
"Appositive oblique", a prepositional phrase with of as in: the month of December, the sin of pride, or the city of New York. This has also been invoked as an explanation for the double genitive: a friend of mine.