Appositive after noun phrase/present participle after passive verb tense

DanielSeo

Member
Korean
I have two questions from the below sentence.

In the markets of Thailand, a developing country that did not have strong local brands in the entry market, shops were multiplied, introducing differentiated premium products and enhancing the brand awareness.

1. The phrase 'a developing country that did not have strong local brands in the entry market,' is clearly the appositive of 'Thailand,' and not 'the markets of Thailand, and there is really no confusion which one the appositive is describing. Is there any grammar rule about this kind of construction, that is, an appositive followed by a noun phrase, for cases that may cause confusion as to whether the appositive is describing the noun or the noun phrase before it?

2. There is a present participle clause after 'were multiplied,' a passive verb phrase. Present particles are active forms of a verb that need a subject of the action. Is having a present participle clause without a subject after a passive construction grammatically correct?

Thank you
 
  • grassy

    Senior Member
    Polish
    I don't know about rules but I'd say it often describes that which is closest to it.
    "Introducing" does have a subject and it's "shops" in that case.
     
    The grammar and sense of the words would tell you antecedents, usually; e.g, compare: "The markets of Thailand, chaotic arenas of petty squabbling, are hard to predict."

    You are right that the subject of 'introducing' is hard to make out. The simplest analysis is that it's adverbial, applying to 'multiplied'.
    Alternatively, one might say that the whole clause "shops were multiplied" is being commented on, and that 'introducing' is a modifier of the whole clause.

    A simple example: He ran, injuring himself.

    The -ing forms | English Grammar | EF

    This issue is described as an action parallel to the action of the main verb.

    The British Council has this to say--which, I believe, supports the first proposal I made:
    Participle clauses

    Participle clauses

    Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example:


    Waiting for John, I made some tea.
     
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    Englishmypassion

    Senior Member
    India - Hindi
    1. The oppositive normally modifies the noun immediately preceding it but not always as many/most grammar books claim.in your case, it clearly modifies Thailand.

    2. The subject of "introducing" is the clause "shops were multiplied."

    Cross-posted with Benny.

    PS: You might want to take a look at post 9 here: relative pronouns
     
    EMP said in part: New 1. The appositive normally modifies the noun immediately preceding it but not always as many/most grammar books claim.in your case, it clearly modifies Thailand.

    I would say "often", rather than 'normally'

    Simple phrases often intrude. The king of England, a giant among men, will attend the ceremony.
     
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    Englishmypassion

    Senior Member
    India - Hindi
    EMP said in part: New 1. The appositive normally modifies the noun immediately preceding it but not always as many/most grammar books claim.in your case, it clearly modifies Thailand.

    I would say "often", rather than 'normally'

    Simple phrases often intrude. The king of England, a giant among men, will attend the ceremony.

    You're right, Benny: that happens a bit less frequently than "normally" implies. I avoided "often" because I'm not often sure how often "often" exactly means, especially because it's often used to mean something closer to just "sometimes" (maybe just a little more frequently than that). Oxford also gives the second definition of "often" as "in many instances"-- I didn't want learners to take that in that sense.
    (Maybe "commonly" could have been a better option there instead of "normally".:confused:)
     
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