The concept of tolerance as a plant strategy and the conditions under which it is an effective alternative to escape and defense were explored by van der Meijden et al.(1998).
I ran into the above at another forum, the original threader and some forum goers have been hotly disscussing whether 'escape' and 'defense' are nouns. I also have the similar doubts that if they are nouns and how to deduce the word(s) after 'alternative to' is noun or verb. Could you clear up my doubt? Thanks in advance.