# As of 2016... Germany has...

#### ali-yue

##### Senior Member
As of 2016 (which was before the influx of asylum seekers), Germany has a large number of Muslims— 4.9 million— but they’re only 6 percent of the population. Other countries have higher proportions: Bulgaria (11.1percent), France (8.8 percent), and Sweden (8.1 percent).

-From 8 Billion and Counting

Question: When "as of 2006" is used, why is the present tense "has" used? Thanks.

• #### nightowl666

##### Senior Member
As of 2016= from 2016, For example: As of last December our meetings have been open to the public.
as of=as from. Since "from" is sometimes used with present perfect, the same principle may apply to "as of".

Michael Swan: A Practical English Usage, 3rd Edition

#### grassy

##### Senior Member
Question: When "as of 2006" is used, why is the present tense "has" used?
To me it suggests the data hadn't been updated at the time she was writing the book. The book is from 2022, by the way.

#### ali-yue

##### Senior Member
To me it suggests the data hadn't been updated at the time she was writing the book. The book is from 2022, by the way.
Thank you so much.

#### ali-yue

##### Senior Member
As of 2016 (which was before the influx of asylum seekers), Germany has a large number of Muslims— 4.9 million— but they’re only 6 percent of the population. Other countries have higher proportions: Bulgaria (11.1percent), France (8.8 percent), and Sweden (8.1 percent).

-From 8 Billion and Counting

Question: When "as of 2006" is used, why is the present tense "has" used? Thanks.
Many thanks. So here "as of" means "as from". I thought it means "by the end of ". The book you mentioned is very good. I have it too.

#### ali-yue

##### Senior Member
As of 2016= from 2016, For example: As of last December our meetings have been open to the public.
as of=as from. Since "from" is sometimes used with present perfect, the same principle may apply to "as of".
View attachment 71808
Michael Swan: A Practical English Usage, 3rd Edition
Internet reseach shows this:
France and Germany have the largest Muslim populations in Europe (defined as the 28 current European Union member countries plus Norway and Switzerland). As of mid-2016, there were 5.7 million Muslims in France (8.8% of the country’s population) and 5 million Muslims in Germany (6.1%).
Does this "as of" mean "by the end of "? Thanks.

#### Andygc

##### Senior Member
No, it means in mid-2016. In your OP, the use of the present tense was an error. "As of" is a reference to a past occasion - the point when data was collected. So it means "since".

It should have been
As of 2016 ... Germany has had a large number of Muslims

#### ali-yue

##### Senior Member
No, it means in mid-2016. In your OP, the use of the present tense was an error. "As of" is a reference to a past occasion - the point when data was collected. So it means "since".

It should have been
Thank you so much. Your explanation is very clear.