as per / according to / based on


Senior Member
  1. The forecast should be 1,000 units as per Kevin.
  2. The forecast should be 1,000 units according to Kevin.
  3. The forecast should be 1,000 units based on Kevin.

Are these all correct?
I have a feeling 3) sounds a bit strange here, should I say - The forecast should be 1,000 units based on Kevin's analysis.
  • lingobingo

    Senior Member
    English - England
    Is Kevin a person, and do you mean according to what he’s said to you? If so, no. 2 works. The others definitely don’t.

    Uncle Jack

    Senior Member
    British English
    "Should" means "ought to", but according to whom?

    If you are the person who thinks it should be 1,000 units, and you are using Kevin's analysis to back up your assertion, then you can use "as per", but I would expect it to be "as per Kevin's analysis", not "as per Kevin". Also, although I use "as per" quite a lot, it is not widely used in English, and it might well not work with your audience.

    However, if all you are doing is reporting Kevin's findings, then only "according to" fits, out of your examples. Here, because "according to" can refer to a person rather than a piece of writing, then you can use "Kevin" on its own, and don't have to write "Kevin's analysis" (although "Kevin's analysis" would not be wrong).

    "Based on Kevin's analysis" (as with "as per", you cannot use "Kevin" on its own) fits between these; you aren't asserting that you think it should be 1,000 units, but you clearly support Kevin's analysis. In sentence (2), you might disagree with Kevin's analysis, but you cannot disagree with it and say sentence (3); sentences (1) and (3) both say that it should be 1000 units, whereas sentence (2) basically says that Kevin says it should be 1000 units.