I assume that this is filled with goat cheese rather than goat meat. You need to spell that out in English. Neither pastries nor fritters are right: you will need to coin something - "goat cheese parcels"?
Absolutely. Furthermore it cannot be refering to meat because of au => it means chèvre is masculine in this sentence thus one is talking about the cheese indeed. If it was refering to the meat it would be à la chèvre.
The dictionary page translates 'chèvre' as goat (nf). The expression 'fromage de chèvre' is used to refer to goat cheese. This seems to be a case of a dictionary needing catch up with modern idiom. The instructions support the translation of 'chèvre' (nm) as 'goat cheese'.