authoritative, grand-daddy monolingual dictionaries

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The following is a list of monolingual dictionaries, both online and offline, that are generally considered to be the standard, authoritative dictionaries of the given language -- either in terms of sheer size and depth (e.g. the OED) or because it's the one that every native speaker turns to.

There are still some languages and some dictionaries missing, so if you have any suggestions, please use the Report function (at the bottom of a post) to notify the moderators.



Català (Catalan) :

DIEC2 - Diccionari de la llengua catalana de l'Institut d'Estudis Catalans - the official, the normative.
GREC - Gran Diccionari de la llengua catalana - non-normative-but-nearly (that is, if a word is not in DIEC but it's here, don't hesitate to use it)

Cymraeg (Welsh) :

Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru

Deutsch (German) :

Duden - Deutsches Universalwörterbuch
ÖWB - Österreichisches Wörterbuch (not available online)
Kurt Meyer, Schweizer Wörterbuch (not available online)
DWDS - Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
Grimms Deutsches Wörterbuch (out of date but still useful and comprehensive)

English :

Oxford English Dictionaries:
OED - Oxford English Dictionary (not available for free to non-UK residents; students, however, might have access through university--check your university library's website)
Compact OED
OALD - Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge's Advanced Learner's Dictionary

the following two (and more) available through
Random House Unabridged Dictionary
American Heritage® Dictionary

Español (Spanish) :

RAE - Real Academia Español (also available through WordReference by clicking "Definición RAE" after looking up any Spanish word)

Français (French) :

TFL - Trésor de la Langue Française
TLFi: linkable simplified / advanced search enabled
Académie française: 8th edition (complete) / 9th edition (incomplete, A through PIE at the moment)
Robert (subscription necessary)

Hrvatski (Croatian) :

Hrvatski enciklopedijski rječnik (via Croatian Language Portal)

Italiano (Italian) :

Grande dizionario della lingua italiana
Hoepli - Gabrielli

Magyar nyelv (Hungarian) :

LangBridge Nyelvinformatika - Magyar egynyelvű szótár

Nederlands (Dutch) :

Van Dale (website only gives very limited access to the concise version)

Polish (Polski) :

Słownik Języka Polskiego PWN Słownik języka polskiego PWN

Português (Portuguese) :

Dicionário Aulete da língua portuguesa

Românește (Romanian) :

DEX - Dicţionar explicativ al limbii române

Русский язык (Russian) :

Ozhegov - Толковый словарь русского языка

Slovenski jezik (Slovenian) :

SSKJ - Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika

Türkçe (Turkish) :

TDK (Türk Dil Kurumu [Turkish Language Association])

Yкраї́нська мо́ва (Ukrainian) :

Великий тлумачний словник сучасної української мови

中文 (Chinese) :

published by the government:Le
China's (Mandarin)
Taiwan's (Mandarin)
Taiwan's (Taiwanese)
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