auto je opravené - auto je opraveno

Discussion in 'Čeština (Czech)' started by The Machine of Zhu, Jun 16, 2010.

  1. The Machine of Zhu Member

    Dutch - Flemish
    Hello, I can't seem to work out the difference between these to sentences/constructions:

    a) Auto je opravené.
    b) Auto je opraveno.

    I know 'opravené' is a passive adjective made from a verb (opravit in this case), and the second is the passive. My question is whether there is a substantial difference between the two sentences and can they be used interchangeably.

    And one additional question about the passive. Is the 'ending' (koncovka) -i only used with masculine animated words in the plural?


  2. ilocas2 Senior Member


    I'm not able to answer the rest of the question :eek:
  3. The Machine of Zhu Member

    Dutch - Flemish

    Perhaps another native speaker will be able to tackle the rest.
  4. jazyk Senior Member

    Brno, Česká republika
    Brazílie, portugalština
    I think it can be similar to Dutch:

    Auto je opravené - De auto is gerepareerd.
    Auto je opraveno - De auto wordt gerepareerd.
  5. ency New Member

    I'll try to explain it :)

    a) Auto je opravené.
    b) Auto je opraveno.

    So a) is about pattern "mladý" and "Střední rod", but some adjectives have shorter form called as "Jmenný tvar" or "Krátký tvar"
    eg. Honza je mladý. x Honza je mlád.

    It means same, you can read somethink about it here hxxp://Česká_přídavná_jména
  6. texpert Senior Member

    In most cases, there is no difference apart from the style (the passive is predominantly used in cultivated speech). However, the difference could be rather significant when past tense is used:

    auto bylo právě opravené = the car was repaired at certain moment, indicating it might not be fixed anymore
    auto bylo právě opraveno = the car was repaired (exactly) at certain moment

    As to the second question, the answer is yes.
  7. werrr Senior Member

    With this you are halfway to understand the difference. Adjectives, including the verbal ones, are used to assign a property and could be used even in non-verbal constructions:

    auto je opravené :tick: × opravené auto :tick:
    auto je malé :tick: × malé auto :tick:

    That means that the phrase auto je opravené assigns a property to the car, it says what is the car like, what is the state of the car:

    auto je malé = the car is small
    malé auto = small car
    auto je opravené ~ the car is after repair
    opravené auto ~ car after repair​

    Any construction with verb, including passive participles, is verbal by definition, so you can’t use the participle in non-verbal sense:

    auto je opraveno :tick: × opraveno auto :cross:

    Verbs describe an action/event, so the phrase auto je opraveno says what happened to the car, what is the state of the action:

    auto je opraveno ~ repair (of the car) is finished​

    There is a difference, but often it is so subtle that both makes sense in given situation. The difference is most obscure for perfective verbs in present tense, because present perfectiveness is always quirky concept. Even natives commonly confuse this. Texpert is right the difference becomes apparent in past (or future) tense:

    ve třináctém století bylo město založeno
    the act of establishing the town happened in the 13th century

    ve třináctém století bylo město založené
    the state of the town in the 13th century was that it was after the act of its establishing​

    Based on my limited knowledge of German I guess that this concurs with the jazyk’s Dutch example.

    And one additional warning, while the participles carry the same meaning as the original verb, the adjectives of verbal origin commonly acquire a secondary meaning which could eventually replace the original meaning to the extend that the natives don’t perceive the adjective as verbal anymore:

    krysy jsou hubeny = rats are being exterminated
    krysy jsou hubené = rats are lean (as result of being exterminated)​

    It is used for and only for the plural subjects which include at least one masculine animate entity.
  8. The Machine of Zhu Member

    Dutch - Flemish
    Thanks everyone, especially werrr for that elaborate explanation! It's very helpful!

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