Avestan yare "year"

Dhira Simha

Senior Member
UK
Russian
The popular Etymological dictionary gives Avestan yare "year" as a cognate of Eng. year, Germ Jahr, Greek hora etc. This seems plausible, however, I could not find yare in any ofthe Avestan dictionaries I have at hand. I also could not find anything in Sanskrit which would be even remotely similar. This seems unusual. Can anybody advise me if yare has been attested in Avestan and give a reference? I also suspect that the transliteration "yare" may not be correct. I would appreciate any other ideas and/or links in modern IE languages regarding this word.
 
  • fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    You will find it in Bartholomae’s dictionary (col. 1287) as yār-. It is a neuter –r stem, quite common, on its own and in various compounds. The nom./acc. sing. is written and recited as yārə with an “anaptyktischer Vokal ə” arising in lento recitation (Hoffmann p. 51, with lots of examples).
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    You will find it in Bartholomae’s dictionary (col. 1287) as yār-. It is a neuter –r stem, quite common, on its own and in various compounds. The nom./acc. sing. is written and recited as yārə with an “anaptyktischer Vokal ə” arising in lento recitation (Hoffmann p. 51, with lots of examples).
    Thank you! Please give a full ref. to Hoffmann. I would like to look it up. Any ideas why it is completely missing in Sanskrit?
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    Karl Hoffmann, Avestische Laut- und Formenlehre (2004). But you can read about the anaptyctic vowels also in the old grammars by Jackson and Bartholomae (in the Grundriss der iranischen Philologie).
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    Thank you, and the last, probably stupid question. In the examples of Bartholomea's dictionary it repeatedly appears as *rə- : Yare.pngIs there some kind of a y-elision rule?
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    No, this is Bartholomae's way of abbreviating the lemma. °rə means yārə. (The AiWb is a wonderful dictionary, but it is very difficult to use).
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    No, this is Bartholomae's way of abbreviating the lemma. °rə means yārə. (The AiWb is a wonderful dictionary, but it is very difficult to use).
    Indeed! Thank you for you valuable advice. I still ponder on the possibility of yārə being actually a compound of the interrogative base ya plus ara "spoke of a wheel (also wheel of time). This may explain its absence in Skr. and the long ā which would be the usual case of -a + a- sandhi. Semantically, it does make some sense because in many IE languages this word means not "year" but "season, time of year" cp. Gr. ώρα, φορά and Rus. пора pora "time, season".
     
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    berndf

    Moderator
    German (Germany)
    Indeed! Thank you for you valuable advice. I still ponder on the possibility of yārə being actually a compound of the interrogative base ya plus ara "spoke of a wheel ( also wheel of time). This may explain its absence in Skr. and the long ā which would be the usual case of -a + a- sandhi. Semantically, it does make some sense because it many IE languages this word means not "year" but "season, time of year" cp. Gr. ώρα, φορά and Rus. пора pora "time, season".
    I have problems following your argument. Can you give a reference for an "interrogative base 'ya'" in PIE? I haven't heard of such a thing.
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    I have problems following your argument. Can you give a reference for an "interrogative base 'ya'" in PIE? I haven't heard of such a thing.
    True, but here is a verb*yā "to seek, request" (Watkins, 102) and Skr. ya 3 the actual base of the relative pronoun in declension. And its derivatives: yaka mf = 3. %{ya} , who , which, (cp. Rus. dial як, якой jakoj "how, which, what)
    yarhi
    ind. (fr. 3. %{ya} ; correlative of %{ta4rhi} , %{eta4rhi} , but also followed by %{tadA} , %{tatra} , %{atha} &c.) when , at which time
    etc.
     

    berndf

    Moderator
    German (Germany)
    Dunno. It sounds a bit far fetched to take a derivation for a non-existent word in Sanskrit following a logic which really only works in that language to explain Greek or English words.
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    Dunno. It sounds a bit far fetched to take a derivation for a non-existent word in Sanskrit following a logic which really only works in that language to explain Greek or English words.
    Agree, but it is a legitimate field to explore and creates a discourse in connection with the universal representation of the eternal cycle of life as a wheel divided by spokes coming from the centre (where they often placed the Sun). The puzzling absence of this word in Vedic needs to be accounted for.
     

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    aruniyan

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    Avestan yare "year"
    The popular Etymological dictionary gives Avestan yare "year" as a cognate of Eng. year, Germ Jahr, Greek hora etc. This seems plausible, however, I could not find yare in any ofthe Avestan dictionaries I have at hand. I also could not find anything in Sanskrit which would be even remotely similar. This seems unusual. Can anybody advise me if yare has been attested in Avestan and give a reference? I also suspect that the transliteration "yare" may not be correct. I would appreciate any other ideas and/or links in modern IE languages regarding this word.

    I am thinking about Tamil Gyaayiru(Sun) ஞாயிறு,
    also to have some connection.
     
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    mataripis

    Senior Member
    In Tagalog, Year is "Taon" but in English There is a word Solar(yearly/1 year cycle) . If i translate Solar in Tagalog, it is Taunan but Sun in Tagalog is "Araw"! Aruniyan is correct the Avestan "Yare" is related to Gyaayiru of Tamil and Araw of Tagalog. The greek word "Ilios" (sun) become "Ilaw"(light) in Tagalog which is also related to "Araw"(sun)!I suspect that the term "RA" in a mantra chant is a Sanskrit form of Yare term in Avestan.
     
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    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    Sun in Tagalog is "Araw"
    I do not clearly see the link and do not quite follow your logic. However, Araw is interesting in connection with both the Rig-Vedic ara 'the spoke or radius of a wheel' and aru 'the Sun'. Do you think Araw is a native word in Tagalog (Austronesian origin) or it may be a loan (from Sanskrit?).
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    Of course it is the same Indo-European root as the Avestan word, English "year" etc. etc.
    Correct. Cp. also Ukr ярь ж. "spring, spring wheat", Brlorus. ярына́ "spring wheat", Bulg. (dial) яра́ "spring", Serb. jа̑р ж., род. п. jа̑ри "spring", Sloven. jȃr, adj "spring", jа̑r ж. "spring wheat", Czech jaro "spring", jarý "spring, of this year", Slovak. jаr "spring", jarý "fresh", Pol. jаr м., jarz ж. "spring", jary "of this year", Upper Lusatian jerica "spring wheat", Lower Lusat. jarica "spring". However, in non of Slavonic languages it means "year".
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    The cardinal meaning is spring. There is a reason for this since, traditionally, the yearly calendar (wheel - kolo) stared with spring and it was about the awakening of nature, fertility and procreation. Across all Europian cultures and particularly, among Slavonic peoples, the main event was the Spring festival where the central figure was "Jarilo; Croatian: Jura or Juraj; Serbian: Đurilo; Slavic: Jarovit), alternatively Yarilo, Iarilo, or Gerovit, was a major male Proto-Slavic deity of vegetation, fertility and spring, also associated with war and harvest". Interestingly, Jarilo was sometimes imagined as a young hero on a white horse. He later transformed into St. George (George = Jurij in Russian cp. Croatian: Jura or Juraj). In some cultures to this day the central figure of the spring festival is the so called "hobby horse". The intricate connection of the spring festival and the wheel calendar is also clearly seen in the German Stuttgarter Frühlingsfest where the main feature is the the Ferris wheel.
     

    aruniyan

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    The cardinal meaning is spring. There is a reason for this since, traditionally, the yearly calendar (wheel - kolo) stared with spring and it was about the awakening of nature, fertility and procreation. Across all Europian cultures and particularly, among Slavonic peoples, the main event was the Spring festival where the central figure was "Jarilo; Croatian: Jura or Juraj; Serbian: Đurilo; Slavic: Jarovit), alternatively Yarilo, Iarilo, or Gerovit, was a major male Proto-Slavic deity of vegetation, fertility and spring, also associated with war and harvest". Interestingly, Jarilo was sometimes imagined as a young hero on a white horse. He later transformed into St. George (George = Jurij in Russian cp. Croatian: Jura or Juraj). In some cultures to this day the central figure of the spring festival is the so called "hobby horse". The intricate connection of the spring festival and the wheel calendar is also clearly seen in the German Stuttgarter Frühlingsfest where the main feature is the the Ferris wheel.
    Interesting, I donot want to drag this further, as I have limited knowledge about Slavic dieties...

    but I read this somewhere..

    Jaorvit (connected with spring and his name suggest he was originally connected with Sun, the slavic root Jar - designating brightness and clarity)
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    Interesting, I donot want to drag this further, as I have limited knowledge about Slavic dieties...

    but I read this somewhere..

    Jaorvit (connected with spring and his name suggest he was originally connected with Sun, the slavic root Jar - designating brightness and clarity)
    It is true but more interesting and touches the very fundamentals of what we call "Indo-Europeans" and, I am convinced, goes much deeper. I am doing a research on this.
     

    Ben Jamin

    Senior Member
    Polish
    Interesting, I donot want to drag this further, as I have limited knowledge about Slavic dieties...

    but I read this somewhere..

    Jaorvit (connected with spring and his name suggest he was originally connected with Sun, the slavic root Jar - designating brightness and clarity)
    You meant probably Jarovit /yarovit/? Knowledge about Slavic deities has been almost completely eradicated by the Christian Church. As known, the Slavic people didn't write anything before christianization, and if they even did, everything was destroyed. Only confusing second hand fragments have reached our times.
     

    mataripis

    Senior Member
    I do not clearly see the link and do not quite follow your logic. However, Araw is interesting in connection with both the Rig-Vedic ara 'the spoke or radius of a wheel' and aru 'the Sun'. Do you think Araw is a native word in Tagalog (Austronesian origin) or it may be a loan (from Sanskrit?).
    Probably it is Devanagari.
     

    Dhira Simha

    Senior Member
    UK
    Russian
    Probably it is Devanagari.
    It was my first feeling. The reason I asked was that Skr. aru "the sun" is not registered in Rig Veda and I suspected a possible Austronesian link. However, there is Rig-Vedic aruṇa "reddish-brown, tawny, red, ruddy (the colour of the morning opposed to the darkness of night"which might be related to aru.
     
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