Beda in Slavic languages

dihydrogen monoxide

Senior Member
Slovene, Serbo-Croat
What happened to the word *běda 'misery, trouble'. in Slavic languages? Slovenian only inherited the beda which is noun and no verbal derivations. What is more interesting is how did the semantic shifts come about such as ubijediti 'convince', pobjediti 'win'. What is with the derivations of the word in other Slavic languages and do semantic shifts occur in verbal derivations.
 
  • Ben Jamin

    Senior Member
    Polish
    In Polish:
    bieda - poverty or being in a dire situation (a little outdated).
    biedny - poor, miserable, destitute
    biednieć, zbiednieć - to become poor or less wealthy; imperfective, perfective (I can't recall over verbs in this semantic family)
    biedować - to stay poor over time
    biedak/biedaczka - poor man/woman
    biedactwo - poor child (miserable), or other weak person we feel pity about (condescending)
    biedniak (communist neologism) - a poor peasant
     
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    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    What happened to the word *běda 'misery, trouble'. in Slavic languages? Slovenian only inherited the beda which is noun and no verbal derivations. What is more interesting is how did the semantic shifts come about such as ubijediti 'convince', pobjediti 'win'. What is with the derivations of the word in other Slavic languages and do semantic shifts occur in verbal derivations.
    The mentioned verbal derivations are of the Proto-Slavic age, which makes them generally de-etymologized in common perception. In Russian:
    беда /bʲedá/ [bʲɪˈda] "misery, trouble" (generally informal)
    бедовый /bʲedóvyj/ [bʲɪˈdɔvəɪ̯] "full of mischief, daring" (informal, folkish)
    бедокурить /bʲedokúrʲitʲ/ [bʲɪdɐ'kuɾʲɪtʲ] "get up to mischief, do a lot of mischief" (informal)
    бедный /bʲédnyj/ ['bʲɛdnəɪ̯] "poor" ("having little money", "deficient in sth" + as an expression of pity)
    бедность /bʲédnostʲ/ ['bʲɛdnəsʲtʲ] "powerty; deficiency in sth"
    бедняк /bʲednʲák/ [bʲɪ'dnʲak] "poor man, pauper; a poor peasant in particular"
    бедняга /bʲednʲága/ [bʲɪ'dnʲagə] "poor fellow" (as an expression of pity)
    бедолага /bʲedolága/ [bʲɪdɐ'ɫagə] (id.)
    бедствие /bʲédstvije/ ['bʲɛtstvʲɪə] "calamity, disaster" (a loanword from Church Slavonic)
    бедствовать /bʲédstvovatʲ/ ['bʲɛtstvəvətʲ] "to be in misery; (dated) to live in poverty" (derived from бедствие)
    бедственный /bʲédstvennyj/ ['bʲɛtstvʲən:əɪ̯] "disastrous, extremely severe" (usually in stable expressions; derived from бедствие)

    победа /pobʲéda/ [pɐ'bʲɛdə] "victory" (Old Russian "побѣда" also meant "war" or even "defeat")
    perf. победить /pobʲedʲítʲ/ [pəbʲɪ'dʲitʲ], imperf. побеждать /pobʲeždátʲ/ [pəbʲɪ'ʐdatʲ] "to defeat, to be victorius" (побеждать is clearly of Church Slavonic origin because of the /-žd-/; the native counterpart must have been ousted due to the unfortunate homonymy with побежать /pobʲežátʲ/ "to start running";"победить" doesn't have a 1p.sg.fut. form for a similar reason).
    победитель /pobʲedʲítʲelʲ/ [pəbʲɪ'dʲitʲɪlʲ] "victor, winner, vanquisher"
    победоносный /pobʲedonósnyj/ [pəbʲɪdɐ'nɔsnəɪ̯] "victorious, triumphant" (elevated)

    perf. убедить /ubʲedʲítʲ/ [ʊbʲɪ'dʲitʲ], imperf. убеждать /ubʲeždátʲ/ [ʊbʲɪ'ʐdatʲ] "to convince, to persuade" (apparently from Church Slavonic; cf. also убеждение /ubʲeždʲénʲije/ [ʊbʲɪždʲenʲɪə] "persuasion; belief, conviction")
    убедительный /ubʲedʲítʲelʲnyj/ [ʊbʲɪ'dʲitʲɪlʲnəɪ̯] adj. "convincing, persuasive"
     
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    dihydrogen monoxide

    Senior Member
    Slovene, Serbo-Croat
    To me it's a really weird semantic shift going from misery-winning, misery-conviction, persuasion. Do we know how that came about?
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    To me it's a really weird semantic shift
    Well, *poběditi doesn't seem weird to me at all. Mind you, the original (and still preserved) meaning must be "to defeat" (i.e. to put misery upon smb); and the meaning "to win", "to be victorious" results simply from eliminating the object in the general context of struggle (you defeat your opponent ≡ you win).
    The origin of *uběditi looks more ambiguous (u- must mean "away" here, I presume?..).
     
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