before crashing in France, <killing> 48 people and effectively <ending> ....[why verb+ ing?]

chiyaan vikram

Senior Member
india- hindi
LONDON: The world's "largest aircraft" has embarked on its maiden flight, four days after a previous attempt was abandoned due to technical issues.

The Airlander 10, part plane, part airship, took to the skies amid cheers and applause from crowds gathered at an airfield in Cardington, central England.

The successful flight comes 85 years after another airship -- the ill-fated R101 -- took off from the same airfield in October 1930 before crashing in France, killing 48 people and effectively ending the development of airships in Britain

Why after comma verb+ ing ( killing) has been used?

World's 'largest aircraft' gets off ground - Times of India.
  • Keith Bradford

    Senior Member
    English (Midlands UK)
    What else could it be? If you used "killed" that would give you two main verbs. If you use "kill" it would be meaningless.

    This is a standard construction, with the meaning "and thereby..."; it's repeated five words later with "ending". Even if "before crashing" was changed to "before it crashed", the rest of the sentence would remain good.


    Senior Member
    British English (Sussex)
    In this case, the participial clause shows what happened soon after the "crashing". The aircraft took off, then crashed and killed people.

    This link tells you about the uses of the participial clause. I think it's useful:
    an action that is the result of another action:

    Moments later a bomb exploded, leaving three people dead and twelve others injured.
    When I entered they all looked at me, making me feel uncomfortable.
    Participle clauses | Grammaring - A guide to English grammar
    Your sentence is a little unusual in that the participial clause follows another participle rather than the finite verb. There were a series of events - taking off - crashing - killing - ending. The last two are the result of the crash.
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