Borg / Eber


Senior Member
Lithuania Czech
Hi, all!
I wonder, how You are saying these words in Your respective languages. The difference is that pig(if it is proper "terminus technicus for castrated boar) is castrate of a boar (Sus scrofa f. domestica in Latin). Pigs are castrated to get meat without bad boars odour. But it seems to be necessary only in about 5% of boars, other boar's meat usually is without critically bad odour.
As I'm not sure, how do You say it properly in English, in other languages these words translated from German - not from English. Similar threads: here and here and here.

In English:
Borg - ?pig? (maybe pork??; or hog??) (castrate)
Eber - boar (not castrated)

In German:
Borg (castrate)
Eber (not castrated)

In French: (Sus scrofa f. domesticus = cochon domestique)
Borg - ?? (castrate)
Eber - verrat

In Italian: (Sus scrofa f. domestica = maiale)
Borg - ?? (castrate)
Eber - verro

In Czech: (Sus scrofa f. domestica = prase domácí)
Borg - vepř (castrate) (pl. vepři)
Eber - kanec (not castrated) (pl. kanci)

In Slovak:
Borg - brav (castrate)
Eber - kanec (not castrated)

In Lithuanian: (Sus scrofa f. domestica = naminė kiaulė)
Borg - ?? (castrate)
Eber - kuilys (not castrated)

In Japanese:
ox - 去勢豚(kyose:buta)
bull - 雄豚(obuta)
Thanks for answers. Lucky day to all.
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  • In Esperanto, Sus scrofa domesticus (English = pig) is called porko. That is the generic word. When more specificity is required, the following terms can be used:

    boar (male pig) = virporko
    barrow (castrated male pig) = eksporko
    sow (female pig) = porkino
    piglet (baby pig) = porkido
    In German:
    Borg (castrate)
    Eber (not castrated)

    Borg I haven't heard, ever (except of course in the Star Trek series) and though the German word Borg for a castrate Eber seems to exist (I've checked just now) I do not think that it is widely used; but that may also be due to my Austrian origins, might be different in Germany and Switzerland.

    In Austrian German, by the way, Eber only would be used for wild boars, and not for domesticated ones - for which we use:
    'Borg' = unknown (probably there exists a word for the castrate, I personally know of none; 'Borg' anyway never was used on the farm of my parents, of that I am sure)
    'Eber' = Saubär (meaning: pig-bear)
    (And the female pig simply is called 'Sau' = sow.)
    Thanks for explanation, Sokol! I think, that not precise terminology is in more languages, moreover always there is some meanig drift to indicate a dump person in all domestic animals [castrated] names. In many languages the term for castrated pig simply means a pig grown for meat without regard to its sex and so on... (bacon...)
    These words almost always has more meanings.
    Well, to let there be no misunderstanding: for me German 'borg' has no meaning at all.
    There's a word for castrated cows in my personal German vocabulary, but there's none for a castrated pig. And in the case of English 'bacon' this is a different story altogether, in English many times the meat you eat has a name of French (Romance) origin while the 'meat' that still walks on all four legs has a name of Germanic origin (with 'bacon' being of Romance origin).

    So sorry but I do not quite understand what your post exactly is about; and apart from that I would be interested if really (probably in Germany or Switzerland?) the word 'borg' for 'castrated pig' were used on a regular basis. I myself never have heard it, ever - as already stated.
    In Greek sus scrofa domesticus is «χοίρος» [ˈçiɾos] (masc.) < Classical masc. & fem. «χοῖρος» kʰoî̯rŏs (of unclear etymology, could be related to the Alb. derr, Lat. ēr; if that is the case, then a PIE root *ǵʰoi̯ro- is possible).

    «Χοῖρος» replaced very early in the language the archaic «σῦς/ὗς» sûs or hûs (3rd declension masc. & fem. nom. sing.), «συός/ὑός» sŭós & hŭós (masc. & fem. gen. sing.) --> swine, sow, boar (PIE *suH- swine cf Skt. सूकर (sūkara), boar, Av. hū-, Lat. sūs, ToB suwo, Proto-Germanic *swīną, Proto-Slavic *svinьja).

    In Colloquial MoGr we prefer the name «γουρούνι» [ɣuˈɾuni] (neut.) for the animal < Byz. Gr neut. «γουρούνιον» gouroúniŏn --> pig, diminutive of Koine (originally Doric) 3rd declension fem. «γρωνάς» grōnás (nom. sing.), «γρωνάδος» grōnádŏs (gen. sing.) --> she-pig, sow, possibly an onomatopoeia of the pig's snort «γρῦ» grû.


    «Χοίρος» [ˈçiɾos] (masc.) is the uncastrated male pig, while,
    «Μουνούχος» [muˈnuxos] (masc.) is the castrated one, a corrupted (and rustic) form of the Classical masc. «εὐνοῦχος» eu̯noûkʰŏs --> lit. the chamberlain, the castrated male person in charge of the ruler's chamber and his harem, later, the castrated male person in general (eunuch) < Classical fem. «εὐνή» eu̯nḗ + Classical v. «ἔχω» ékʰō
    In Sardinian we have :

    Berre : boar (not castrated) - from Latin "Verres"
    Mannale : castrated pig (derived from Latin adjective "Magnale", also derived from Magnus = big; in actual Sardinian Mannu = Magnus; Mannale = Magnale)

    Latin Definition for: magnale, magnalis (ID: 26172) - Latin Dictionary and Grammar Resources - Latdict

    Porcu = pork - (Latin "porcus")
    Porcheddu = little pork (Latin diminutive "porcellus"; using classical pronunciation "porkellus -> porkellu -> porkeddu")
    Sue = sow (from Latin "suem"; accusative of "sus - suis")
    Porc'abru = wild boar (Latin porcus + aprum; accusative of aper - apri = wild boar)
    Sirvone, Sirbone = wild boar (form Latin "silvonem" = sylvan, of the forest)
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    (Sus scrofa)

    senglar (or porc senglar) = wild boar (From Latin SINGULARE)
    (Sus domesticus)

    porc = pig (From Latin PORCU)
    bacó = (adult) pig (From O. Frankish bakko)
    truja (or bacona, f. of bacó) = sow (From Latin TROIA)

    porcell or porquet, baconet, garrí, godall = words for piglet

    not castrated:

    verro = boar (From Latin VERRE)
    marrà or mardà (From an Iberian root *marr-)​
    generic pig = maiale, porco
    boar (male pig) = verro (it's a technical word, rarely used in everyday language)
    barrow (castrated male pig) = I never heard a special word for it
    sow (female pig) = scrofa, sometimes troia (rare now because it's usual as an offensive word)
    piglet (baby pig) = maialino, porcellino
    generic pig = varken ('zwijn' often has a negative connotation)
    boar (male pig) = beer
    barrow (castrated male pig) = borg./ barg (but I had never heard that word until now)
    sow (female pig) = zeug (based on 'zuigen', to suck, I suppose)
    piglet (baby pig) = big
    wild boar = ever
    In Portuguese:

    generic pig = porco
    boar (male pig) = porco, porco macho
    barrow (castrated male pig) = castrado or capado
    sow (female pig) = porca
    piglet (baby pig) = leitão
    wild boar = javali