1. J.F. de TROYES Senior Member

    The future in Bulgarian is expressed by putting the 3rd singular person of the verb ща before all the persons of any verb at the present tense.

    I am interested in the auxiliary constructions and I am wondering if the form ще is considered an auxiliary. Is the verb ща also used as a lexical verb with its basic meaning of willing or wishing or is its usage merely grammatical ; is it possible to say at what time this verb morphed into a kind of future particle ?

    Thanks a lot for your help.
  2. Kartof Senior Member

    Bulgarian & English
    The form of the verb "ще" is considered an auxiliary but the verb "ща" is also retained with it's original meaning. This usage also isn't as outdated or archaic as you might think. It would be perfect alright to say "Не ща да ходя" in place of "Не искам да ходя" meaning "I don't want to go". I have a hard time imagining the verb being used in the affirmative, however, as "Ща да ходя" just doesn't sound natural. There are also other forms of the verb also used as auxiliaries, such as in "Щях да ходя" which conveys the meaning of "I was going to go" rather than "I wanted to go". I'm not sure when this verb morphed into a particle but I think it is also common in other South Slavic languages, so it would likely be possible to date this development. I'm not sure if this answers your question but I could give your a more detailed answer if you have any more specific questions.
  3. J.F. de TROYES Senior Member

    Thanks so much for fulfulling my questioning. About other South Slavic languages I know that Macedonian ќе is etymologically related to Bulgarian ще and expresses the future as well.

    One more question . To what category does ще belong for Bulgarian grammars : an auxiliary, a particle, both of them or anything else ?
  4. Kartof Senior Member

    Bulgarian & English
    I think it's a particle since it is invariant when used for the future tense, though in other tenses it is conjugated according to person and number so it would be an auxiliary there, I presume. BCMS also have an etymologically related word, though it is placed at the end of the word and treated as part of the word in their tense system. As far as the Macedonian ќе goes, one of my grandmothers, who speaks a Rhodope dialect of Bulgarian and lives quite far from Macedonia, uses this form in the future tense. The ќ and щ sounds are closely related to each other in Bulgarian and Macedonian. BCMS has a similar counterpart, though I forget which letter it is.
  5. J.F. de TROYES Senior Member

    Could you please give an example ?
  6. iobyo Senior Member

    Bitola, Macedonia
  7. danielstan Senior Member

    Romanian - Romania
    ще is the auxilliary verb meaning "(I) will". It comes from an old form xoще of the verb xotetj ("to will"). See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Bulgarian_language

    This way of building the future tense with the auxiliary verb for "will" is one of the feature included in the concept of Balkan Sprachbund (Balkan linguistic union).
    It is supposed this feature has evolved in the Balkans under the influence of Greek which has it, too.

    Balkanic languages have (at least one) form of future tense built with the verb "will":
    Romanian, Aromanian (dialect of Romanian), Albanian (Gheg and Tosk dialects), (modern) Greek, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Romani (Gipsy).
    See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkan_sprachbund#Future_tense

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