by = a base de

Hace tiempo creo que puse un post similar, así que disculpar esta pregunta:

¿Puede "by" significar "a base de"?

POSTDATA: He mirado varios diccionarios y no me aparece ese significado.
 
  • zebedee

    Senior Member
    Gt. Britain - English
    Henrik Larsson said:
    Hace tiempo creo que puse un post similar, así que disculpar esta pregunta:

    ¿Puede "by" significar "a base de"?

    POSTDATA: He mirado varios diccionarios y no me aparece ese significado.
    Este tipo de pregunta se resuelve mejor con un libro de gramática, más que con un diccionario.
    El que te recomiendo es el "English Grammar In Use" de Raymond Murphy.
    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=3869&highlight=english+grammar

    En el capítulo "By", esto es lo que pone:

    A. We use by to say how we do something. We use by (followed by a noun or -ing) when we talk about what action we take to do something.
    *He only avoided the children in the road by braking hard.
    *She succeeded in memorising the text by concentration.
    *You can improve your English by reading more.
    *She made herself ill by not eating properly.
    Creo que este uso sería tu "a base de"

    However if the noun is plural or there is a determiner before the noun (eg: a, the, this, that, my, her etc) we use a different preposition, not by.
    *I ordered it by phone / I ordered it on the phone
    *She arrived by car / She arrived in her new car

    B. We say something is done by somebody/something (the passive)
    *The programme was watched by millions of people.
    *Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
    *A play by Shakespeare

    C. By also means next to/beside
    *Come and sit by me (=next to me)
    *Where's the light switch? By the door.

    D. Note the following use of by...
    *Clare's salary has just gone up from €1000 a month to €1100. So it has increased by €100 / by 10%.
    *John and Roger had a race over 100 m. Rober won by about 5 metres.
    Espero que te sea de ayuda.
    Un abrazo,
    Zeb
     
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