By the 1920s

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Senior Member
Please, help me to find out in the following phrase (by) exactly stands for what.
( By the 1920s architects throughout Europe were reacting against the conditions created by industrialisation.)
Is it indicating a deadline and so the end of 1920 or means during the 1920?
Thanks a lot in advance.
  • e2efour

    Senior Member
    UK English
    The reference is to the decade of the 1920s. The words throughout Europe could not be used before this decade, although the statement may have been true in parts of Europe before then.


    Senior Member
    English - England
    By the 1920s, architects throughout Europe = at the time when we had reached/at sometime during the decade of 1920s, architects throughout Europe

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