Hello everyone! In A Grammar of the Arabic Language (vol. ii, §227–228) W. Wright thoroughly describes the pronunciation of ‘defective’ nouns (like فتًى fatan, قاضٍ qaaDin) both in pause (at the end of major syntactic constituents in prose) and in rhyme (at the end of a verse in poetry). However, he leaves out from consideration a lot of other situations where a weak consonant (w, y, or 2) appears near the end of a word, so it’s not clear to me if the presence of such a consonant affects in any way the default process of deriving a pausal form from a context form. I have many questions, so I arranged them according to a single template to make them easier to locate and understand: <a set of similar word-final sequences in the context form> <examples transcribed as they are pronounced in context> <questions about the corresponding pausal forms> So, let’s begin. -ay, -aw e.g. لا تبقي laa tabqay; هم أتوا hum 2ataw I guess such words remain the same in pause, don’t they? -iya, -uwa e.g. هو بقي huwa baqiya; لن يدعو lan yad3uwa Am I right that, whether in the past or in the subjunctive, the words having such endings in context change them into -ii and -uu respectively in pause (baqii; yad3uu)? -a, -i, -u (jussive and imperative of defective verbs — أفعال ناقصة) e.g. ابق ibqa; لا ترم laa tarmi; ادع ud3u According to Wright (vol. ii, §230), the words of this kind receive an additional h in pause (ibqah; tarmih; ud3uh), but the way he phrases this gives me an impression there’s some other option. I’d like to know what this option is and how these words are pronounced in MSA. -a2, -i2, -u2 (as such or followed by a short vowel, or by a short vowel + tanwīn) e.g. [-a2:] ابدأ ibda2; بدأ bada2a; يبدأ yabda2u; مبدأ mabda2un, mabda2in, mabda2an; المبدأ al-mabda2u, al-mabda2i, al-mabda2a; [-i2:] ابتدئ ibtadi2; لن يبتدئ lan yabtadi2a; يبتدئ yabtadi2u; بادئ baadi2un, baadi2in; بادئا baadi2an; البادئ al-baadi2u, al-baadi2i, al-baadi2a; [-u2:] لا تبطؤ laa tabTu2; بطؤ baTu2a; يبطؤ yabTu2u; تباطؤ tabaaTu2un, tabaaTu2in; تباطؤا tabaaTu2an; التباطؤ at-tabaaTu2u, at-tabaaTu2i, at-tabaaTu2a Wright only mentions الكلأ becoming al-kalaa in all three cases (vol. ii, §227, rem. b). What about all other sequences? Does it matter whether the word is a noun or a verb? Is the acc. indef. form different from others in pause? Do the rules differ in MSA? Discussing the stress shift in pausal forms compared to context forms (vol. i, §28, a, rem.), Wright gives some more examples relevant to the topic of this thread. Although he doesn’t explicitly define the rules to derive the pausal form and his examples are solely nouns in the nom. indef., I beleive what I’ve inferred from them is generally correct. The rules, as I understand them, along with Wright’s examples (stressed vowels in bold) are listed below; the explanation follows. -aa2 > -aa e.g. اقتناء iqtinaa2un > iqtinaa; حمراء Hamraa2u > Hamraa -iyy, -ii2 > -ii e.g. قرشيّ qurashiyyun > qurashii; نبيّ nabiyyun > nabii; بطيء baTii2un > batii -uww, -uu2 > -uu e.g. عدوّ 3aduwwun > 3aduu; مقروء maqruu2un > maqruu In the definition of each rule, to the left of the ‘>’ sign are sequences appearing at the end of a word in context (indicated here without inflectional terminations that necessary follow: a short vowel, or a short vowel + tanwīn); all these variants are pronounced in pause exactly as indicated to the right of the ‘>’ sign. In the examples, the first transliteration is the context form (with all sounds written) and the second one, after the ‘>’ sign, is the pausal form. First of all, am I right that the pausal forms are the same for all three grammatical cases both with and without tanwīn? I guess, the acc. indef. should be different. Secondly, do these rules apply to verbs as well (e.g. جاء jaa2a; يجيء yajii2u; لن يبوء lan yabuu2a)? And the last, do these rules operate in MSA? Thank you for having read through this long post. I hope for your help.