Hi there, What I know about capitalization in such cases is that when I use "dad, father, papa, mom, mother, momma, uncle, granny, etc" to (directly) address my parents/relations, I should capitalize the first letters, but when I use them as third person while talking to someone else, I should not capitalize the first letters. Am I right? Examples: 1. I am sorry, Dad/Papa/Father. (I think Father isn't usually used as an address for one's dad, and I know Father also means a priest/ God.) 2. I am sorry, dad/papa/father isn't home. 3. How are you, Mom/Momma/Mother/Uncle/Granny? (I think Mother is also not used usually as an address) 4. Liza, where is mom/momma/mother/uncle/granny? Are the first letters of sir and madam/ma'am also capitalized when we use them to address someone, e.g. a student to a teacher: "May I come in, Sir/Ma'am?" Thank you very much.