cat = kat
dog = hond
[Dutch 'dog' refers to a kind of dog, e.g. Deense dog (lit. Danish dog, I think E. Great Dane), Duitse dog (German), etc.]
«Γάτα» [ˈɣa.ta] (fem.) is the generic MoGr name for cat. It probably derives from the Koine fem. «κάττᾱ» kắttā, of unknown origin (although the word is found in Latin and most other languages of Europe).Cat:γάτα
cat -- macska
dog -- kutya
Apologies for quoting myself but just wanted to add a few dialectal words for the two animals:«Γάτα» [ˈɣa.ta] (fem.) is the generic MoGr name for cat. It probably derives from the Koine fem. «κάττᾱ» kắttā, of unknown origin (although the word is found in Latin and most other languages of Europe).
In ancient Greek it's:
(a) «Aἰέλουρος/αἴλουρος» ai̯élourŏs/aí̯lourŏs (masc./fem.) --> wild cat (domestic cats were not found in the Greek world) traditionally believed as being the compound of «αἰόλος» ai̯ólŏs --> quick, swift + «οὐρά» ourā́ --> tail; for Beekes this interpretation is problematic.
(b) «Γαλέη/γαλῆ» găléē (uncontracted)/gălê (contracted) --> weasel, marten, wild cat (with unclear etymology, it's probably connected to the Skt. गिरिका (girikā), mouse, and the Lat. glīs, dormouse).
«Γαλῆ» [ɣaˈli] (fem.) was the preferred name for the proponents of the usage of Katharevousa Greek in every-day speech.
«Σκύλος» ['scilos] (masc.) is the generic MoGr name for dog. It comes from the Koine masc. noun «σκύλ(λ)ος» skúl(l)ŏs --> young dog, puppy < Classical 3rd declension masc. noun «σκύλαξ» skúlăks (nom. sing.), «σκύλακος» skúlăkŏs (gen. sing.) --> puppy.
In ancient Greek it's «κύων» kúōn. The name «σκύλος» has replaced it in the vernacular, at least since the Hellenistic era (as Hesychius the Alexandrian attests):
«...σκύλον τὸν κύνα λέγουσιν» = "they (i.e the mainland Greeks) name the kúōn, skúlŏs."
There is a further word for a dog in Irish, “cú”, suggesting perhaps more the senses of English “hound”, and cognate with Latin “canis”, French “chien”, English “hound” and so on. See also the name of the folk hero Cú Chulainn - WikipediaIn Irish
cat - cat (pronounced c/o/th)
dod - madra (pronounced mod/ rah) or gadhar (pronounced guy/err, with the emphasis on the guy)
Actually, Arabic has several words for cat:Arabic:
Cat - قط/قطة (qiTTun/qiTTatun)
Dog - كلب (kalb)