Comprehend and understand

Włoskipolak 72

Senior Member
Polish
Comprehension = the act or action of grasping with the intellect , the ability to understand something.
Understanding = mental, sometimes emotional process of comprehension, assimilation of knowledge, which is subjective by its nature.

If you grasp something that is complicated or difficult to understand, you understand it. :D

May I ask how you say: to comprehend , understand in your language ?

Latin [comprĕhendo],
From con- +‎ prehendō (“catch, grasp”).

From Proto-Italic *praixendō, equivalent to prae- (“fore-, pre-”) +‎ *hendō (“to take, seize”) (not attested without prefix), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰed-; akin to Ancient Greek χανδάνω (khandánō, “hold, contain”), and English get.


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From Proto-Germanic *standanan.



Polish


understand = rozumieć , zrozumieć.

rozum(noun) from Proto-Slavic orzumъ (“reason, intellect, mind”), orzuměti (verb)

comprehend =pojmować, rozumieć ,załapać

grasp (verb)= uchwycić , pojąć , łapać
 
  • Penyafort

    Senior Member
    Catalan (Catalonia), Spanish (Spain)
    Catalan:

    comprendre [from Latin comprehendere] = 'understand', 'comprehend'
    entendre [from Latin intendere] = 'understand', 'intend'

    More local or literary forms
    capir and capissar [from Latin capere 'to catch']

    Extended more restricted use
    copsar [uncertain origin] = 'to grasp', 'to catch'
    pescar [from Latin piscare 'to fish'] = 'to fish', (informal) 'to get, understand'
     
    Greek:

    Comprehension: «Κατανόηση» [ka.taˈno̞.i.si] (fem.) < Classical 3rd declension feminine noun «κατανόησις» kătănóēsis (sing. nom.), «κατανοήσεως» kătănŏḗsĕōs (sing. gen.) --> observation, consideration, introspection, a compound: Classical prefix & preposition «κατά» kătắ + Classical 3rd declension feminine noun «νόησις» nóĕsis --> intelligence, understanding, concept < Classical 3rd declension masculine noun «νόος/νοῦς» nóŏs (uncontracted)/noûs (contracted) --> mind, perception, sense, will, an act of mind, thought, purpose, design, the sense or meaning of a word, (in Attic philosophy) intelligence, intellect, reason (of no certain etymology; possibly related to the Proto-Germanic *snutraz, wise, clever > Icelandic snotur, pretty).

    To comprehend (verb): «Κατανοώ» [ka.ta.no̞ˈo̞] < Classical v. «κατανοέω/κατανοῶ» kătănŏéō (uncontracted)/kătănŏô (contracted) --> to observe well, understand, apprehend, perceive, learn, consider, be in one's senses, a compound: «κατά» + «νοῦς».

    To understand (verb): «Καταλαβαίνω» [ka.ta.laˈve̞.no̞] < Byz.Gr. v. «καταλαβαίνω» katalabaí̯nō (idem) < Classical v. «καταλαμβάνω» kătălămbắnō --> to catch, overtake, come up with, hold down, cover, seize, lay hold of, later, (Koine Gr.) to understand, comprehend; the verb appears with the modern sense already in the Christian NT: «καταλαβέσθαι σὺν πᾶσι τοῖς ἁγίοις» (Eph. 3:18) = "to comprehend with all the saints" (NKJV).
    The word is a compound: Classical prefix & preposition «κατά» (see earlier) + Classical v. «λαμβάνω» lămbắnō.

    The noun «κατάληψη» [kaˈta.li.p͡si] (fem.) has retained the original meaning and means strictly occupation, and lately, squating too. So, for the meaning of undesrtanding we use the suppletive «κατανόηση» [ka.taˈno̞.i.si] (fem.) instead.

    Note that in MoGr exist many collateral words after the introduction of Katharevousa Greek in the 18th/19th c. i.e. words that were inherited and used in their later form as they evolved naturally from Koine & Byzantine Greek, and archaic words that were reintroduced and retain their original meaning. So, the reintroduced archaic verb «καταλαμβάνω» has the original meaning of capture, occupy, seize while its collateral Byzantine «καταλαβαίνω» means understand, comprehend.
     
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    Włoskipolak 72

    Senior Member
    Polish
    Catalan:

    comprendre [from Latin comprehendere] = 'understand', 'comprehend'
    entendre [from Latin intendere] = 'understand', 'intend'

    More local or literary forms
    capir and capissar [from Latin capere 'to catch']

    Extended more restricted use
    copsar [uncertain origin] = 'to grasp', 'to catch'
    pescar [from Latin piscare 'to fish'] = 'to fish', (informal) 'to get, understand'
    Let's see how similar are Catalan and Italian ?:)

    capir and capissar = capire in Italian .
    capire = comprendere un'idea, un concetto.

    grasp = afferrare

    1623260260038.png


    I would have never imagined that there could be the ''connection'' between Polish , German , Italian and Latin ...!:)

    kapować (verb),(rozumieć, domyślać się ,kumać ) to get it , cotton on ? = capire , afferrare , arrivarci .

    From German kapieren +‎ -ować, from Italian capire, from Latin capiō.

    Schau, ich hab's kapiert. Look I got it .
     
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    Włoskipolak 72

    Senior Member
    Polish
    Greek:

    Comprehension: «Κατανόηση» [ka.taˈno̞.i.si] (fem.) < Classical 3rd declension feminine noun «κατανόησις» kătănóēsis (sing. nom.), «κατανοήσεως» kătănŏḗsĕōs (sing. gen.) --> observation, consideration, introspection, a compound: Classical prefix & preposition «κατά» kătắ + Classical 3rd declension feminine noun «νόησις» nóĕsis --> intelligence, understanding, concept < Classical 3rd declension masculine noun «νόος/νοῦς» nóŏs (uncontracted)/noûs (contracted) --> mind, perception, sense, will, an act of mind, thought, purpose, design, the sense or meaning of a word, (in Attic philosophy) intelligence, intellect, reason (of no certain etymology; possibly related to the Proto-Germanic *snutraz, wise, clever > Icelandic snotur, pretty).

    To comprehend (verb): «Κατανοώ» [ka.ta.no̞ˈo̞] < Classical v. «κατανοέω/κατανοῶ» kătănŏéō (uncontracted)/kătănŏô (contracted) --> to observe well, understand, apprehend, perceive, learn, consider, be in one's senses, a compound: «κατά» + «νοῦς».

    To understand (verb): «Καταλαβαίνω» [ka.ta.laˈve̞.no̞] < Byz.Gr. v. «καταλαβαίνω» katalabaí̯nō (idem) < Classical v. «καταλαμβάνω» kătălămbắnō --> to catch, overtake, come up with, hold down, cover, seize, lay hold of, later, (Koine Gr.) to understand, comprehend; the verb appears with the modern sense already in the Christian NT: «καταλαβέσθαι σὺν πᾶσι τοῖς ἁγίοις» (Eph. 3:18) = "to comprehend with all the saints" (NKJV).
    The word is a compound: Classical prefix & preposition «κατά» (see earlier) + Classical v. «λαμβάνω» lămbắnō.

    The noun «κατάληψη» [kaˈta.li.p͡si] (fem.) has retained the original meaning and means strictly occupation, and lately, squating too. So, for the meaning of undesrtanding we use the suppletive «κατανόηση» [ka.taˈno̞.i.si] (fem.) instead.

    Note that in MoGr exist many collateral words after the introduction of Katharevousa Greek in the 18th/19th c. i.e. words that were inherited and used in their later form as they evolved naturally from Koine & Byzantine Greek, and archaic words that were reintroduced and retain their original meaning. So, the reintroduced archaic verb «καταλαμβάνω» has the original meaning of capture, occupy, seize while its collateral Byzantine «καταλαβαίνω» means understand, comprehend.
    Unfortunately I don't speak Greek an amazing language with a rich history !:oops:

    Καταλαβαίνω =Inherited from the mediaeval Byzantine Greek καταλαβαίνω (katalabaínō), from Ancient Greek καταλαμβάνω (katalambánō) with metaplasm according to λαμβάνω (lambánō) > λαβαίνω (lavaíno).[1] Morphologically, κατα- (kata-) +‎ λαβαίνω (lavaíno, “receive”). Doublet of καταλαμβάνω (katalamváno).
     

    Cork Irish

    Member
    British English
    In Irish: tabhair le (to take with you) can mean to comprehend, grasp. Thug is the past tense. Thug sé leis an focal - he grasped/mentally understood the word (literally: he took the word with him).

    To understand is normally tuiscint. So this could also be: thuig sé an focal.

    I believe thug and thuig are connected in terms of their deep etymology.

    The English slang word "twig", as is "do you twig?" (do you understand?) is from Irish. Tuigim = I understand (and so "I twig")
     

    Cork Irish

    Member
    British English
    No-one has yet commented on the Russian. The normal word for "to understand" is понимать, which has the prefix по- and -нимать, which derives from ancient roots meaning "to take". So to that extent, the Russian is formed from "to take" in the same way that the final element of "comprehend" means "grasp/take". And the Irish tabhair le also means "take with you".

    What would be interesting, as many words in Russian appear to be calques of Latin or German, would be if a word had all the same elements as com-pre-hend. In that case, it would be *сопреднять, but such a word doesn't exist....

    There are lots of Russian words and phrases in this lexical area. I have come across:
    • соображать
    • уяснять себе
    • сечь, усекать
    • врубаться
    • улавливать
    • разбираться в (в этом не разбираюсь)
    • шарить в (в этом не шарю)
    • въезжать в (в это не въезжаю)
    • догонять (criminal slang)
    Irish has a small vocabulary and is not as "rich" in alternatives as Russian. Some of these are slang, colloquial or whatever. улавливать could be seen as similar to comprehend, with the final element of the compound meaning "catch".
     
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    Cork Irish

    Member
    British English
    Irish is very unusual among European languages, I would say. Or the Celtic languages in general.

    Tuig (imperative, "understand"; pronounced /t̪ˠɪɟ/) - this derives from an Old Irish verb do beir, "to bring, give", from Proto-Indo-European *bʰer- ("to bear, carry"). The perfective of do beir was the suppletive form do uic, ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂neḱ- (“to reach”). Do uicci produced the prototonic form (where the accent was placed on the first syllable) tuicci, which gave rise to tuig.

    Tabhair (imperative, "give, bring"; pronounced /t̪ˠuːɾʲ/) - this also derives from the Old Irish do beir, as tabair was a prototonic form of do beir.

    So curiously, both ways of saying "understand" have a common origin. Using the verbal nouns:

    Rud a thuiscint (from tuig): to understand something
    Rud a thabhairt leat (from tabhair): to grasp something (literally, bring it with you)

    The preterites are even more similar:

    thuig sé é: he understood it (regular preterite of tuig)
    thug sé leis é: he grasped it (where thug is the suppletive preterite of tabhair).
     

    rarabara

    Senior Member
    Bilingual In Kurdish & Turkish
    TURKISH :

    comprehend: kavramak.
    understand: anlamak.

    KURDISH:

    comprehend:hin bun
    understand: fehm kirin

    ....
     

    Cork Irish

    Member
    British English
    TURKISH :

    comprehend: kavramak.
    understand: anlamak.

    KURDISH:

    comprehend:hin bun
    understand: fehm kirin

    ....
    But why are the translations you give for "comprehend" and "understand" different?
    In English, these are synonyms, although comprehend, as a Latinate word, could be thought higher-style. What is it about the lexical meaning of comprehend that is different from the lexical meaning of understand in a way that leads you to give wildly different translations into Turkish and Kurdish of these words?
     

    rarabara

    Senior Member
    Bilingual In Kurdish & Turkish
    But why are the translations you give for "comprehend" and "understand" different?
    In English, these are synonyms, although comprehend, as a Latinate word, could be thought higher-style. What is it about the lexical meaning of comprehend that is different from the lexical meaning of understand in a way that leads you to give wildly different translations into Turkish and Kurdish of these words?
    may I ask ;

    from where did you translate the words?
     

    Rallino

    Moderatoúrkos
    Turkish
    But why are the translations you give for "comprehend" and "understand" different?
    In English, these are synonyms, although comprehend, as a Latinate word, could be thought higher-style. What is it about the lexical meaning of comprehend that is different from the lexical meaning of understand in a way that leads you to give wildly different translations into Turkish and Kurdish of these words?
    Because, anlamak is the default verb for "to understand". Kavramak literally means "to grasp"; it's used when you want to emphasize that you get the underlying logic of a concept.
     

    Cork Irish

    Member
    British English
    Because, anlamak is the default verb for "to understand". Kavramak literally means "to grasp"; it's used when you want to emphasize that you get the underlying logic of a concept.
    Yes, there is a slight difference in nuance. Merriam-Webster says:

    How is the word comprehend distinct from other similar verbs?

    The words appreciate and understand are common synonyms of comprehend. While all three words mean "to have a clear or complete idea of," comprehend may stress the process of coming to grips with something intellectually.

    How are the words understand and comprehend related?

    Both understand and comprehend are very often interchangeable, with understand sometimes stressing the fact of having attained a firm mental grasp of something.
    Sometimes it can help to establish one-for-one equivalences between words in foreign languages, but generally I find you have to move away from that once you get deeper into your study of the target language. Anyway, you have found a one-for-one equivalence that probably works in your languages.
     

    Cork Irish

    Member
    British English
    Another interesting thing is the use of "take" to mean "understand" as in Irish tabhairt leat, "to take with you; to grasp, understand". Compare this with the English "to take in" - "I couldn't take it all in", where the taking is in a different direction entirely. I enjoyed the lecture on particle physics, but I couldn't take it all in.
     

    rarabara

    Senior Member
    Bilingual In Kurdish & Turkish
    Another interesting thing is the use of "take" to mean "understand" as in Irish tabhairt leat, "to take with you; to grasp, understand". Compare this with the English "to take in" - "I couldn't take it all in", where the taking is in a different direction entirely.
    The more, I was considering "to get." (But probably closer to "to comprehend" rather than "to understand")

    I enjoyed the lecture on particle physics, but I couldn't take it all in.

    :tick:
     
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