Connecting dependent clauses with conjunctions

thankful1

Senior Member
Greek
He passed the test because he studied hard, was calm and .... self-confidence.

1. had
2. he had
3. because he had

What is correct?
I think that the first option is the correct one. Am I right?
Thank you in advance.
 
  • babapapa

    Member
    German
    You can use all three. The best one is the first.
    The worst one is the second because you didn't put a "he" before "was calm", either.
    If you want to emphasize the self-confidence you can use the third one.

    Instead of using the first two options you could just change the word "self-confidence" to "self-confident".
     
    Last edited:

    Magixo

    Senior Member
    Croatian
    He passed the test because he studied hard...
    I don't think it's a correct sentence at all. From the above sentence I would conclude that the guy studied hard after he passed the test. I would rather say:

    He passed the test because he had studied hard...

    Sincerely,
    Magixo
     

    Loob

    Senior Member
    English UK
    He passed the test because he studied hard, was calm and .... self-confidence.

    1. had
    2. he had
    3. because he had

    What is correct?
    I think that the first option is the correct one.
    I agree with you, on the grounds of the parallelism between "[he] was" and "[he] had".
     

    JB

    Senior Member
    English (AE)
    My opinion, the best choice (American English) is:
    He passed the test because he
    studied hard,
    was calm,
    and had self-confidence.

    I separated it above just to show graphically the "he" is implied in the second and 3rd phrase, and there is not need to repeat it.

    Magixco, re your "I don't think it's a correct sentence at all. From the above sentence I would conclude that the guy studied hard after he passed the test." I think you have misunderstood the sentence. The structure is the same as:
    I got fat because I ate too much. I got sick because I drank too much. I succeeded because I worked hard.
    The reason comes first, then the result.
     

    entangledbank

    Senior Member
    English - South-East England
    The first is neatest, because the three verbs are then parallel. It's what I would write. But be aware that it is very common for English-speakers to write the others. This disturbs me when I read it. Did they not re-read what they just wrote? Or is it grammatically natural for them? But I think this is a matter of neatness rather than grammatical correctness: if I went to your house and found a painting hanging crooked on the wall, I would want to align it, but it's just me wanting everything to be neat and straight because I think it looks or sounds better. People do use all three of your alternatives.
     
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