A cripple stud is a short stud (usually very short) which does not run all the way from the bottom plate to the top plate such as you would place under a window sill or above a window or door header. A jack stud is similar (in that it does not run all the way to the top plate) but a jack stud sits on the bottom plate and carries the load of the header above it. A king stud would be installed next to a jack stud and would run all the way to the top plate.
This is the meaning in framing construction. What you would call it in Spanish however, I do not know.