Cymraeg: Mae / Mae'r

Alxmrphi

Senior Member
UK English
I'm only just starting with the basics of Welsh and the first thing I'm determined to sort out is these letters that are appearing around the words I know.
If you can have 3rd person singular of to be, as mae, as in:

Mae Tom

'Tom is / does'

Then what is the 'r that links onto it in other examples like:

Mae’r plant yn mynd i’r ysgol ar y bws

'The children are going to school on the bus.'

Mae’r staff yn gweithio’n hwyr.

'The staff are working late.'

I'm getting to grips with the verb-noun combination with yn which (luckily) doesn't require a soft mutation, but I'm not sure what this 'r is referring to.
Can anyone help? If it's not too far off topic, what are the extended versions of the i'r and gweithio'n as well?

Diolch.
 
  • Stoggler

    Senior Member
    English (Southern England)
    I'm only just starting with the basics of Welsh and the first thing I'm determined to sort out is these letters that are appearing around the words I know.
    If you can have 3rd person singular of to be, as mae, as in:

    Mae Tom
    'Tom is / does'

    Then what is the 'r that links onto it in other examples like:

    Mae’r plant yn mynd i’r ysgol ar y bws
    'The children are going to school on the bus.'

    Mae’r staff yn gweithio’n hwyr.
    'The staff are working late.'

    I'm getting to grips with the verb-noun combination with yn which (luckily) doesn't require a soft mutation, but I'm not sure what this 'r is referring to.
    Can anyone help? If it's not too far off topic, what are the extended versions of the i'r and gweithio'n as well?

    Diolch.

    Hi

    As mentioned by CapnPrep, it's the definite article, which also appears elsewhere in your first example:

    Mae’r plant yn mynd i’r ysgol ar y bws
    'The children are going to school on the bus.'

    The definite article comes it three forms in Welsh: y, yr, and 'r. Y is used before consonants, yr is used before words beginning with vowels and h, but 'r is used if the word before the definite article ends in a vowel sound, as in the two examples above (i.e. after mae and i) - this usage takes precedence over the other two.
     
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