Deep and undeep (?)/ shallow

ThomasK

Senior Member
Belgium, Dutch
What is your word for deep and do you have an opposite for that in your language? I'd think shallow is some kind of an antonym, "un-deep", but...

Will you please mention whether you consider it a perfect antonym or not?
 
  • Greek:

    Deep (adj.): «Βαθύς, -θιά, -θύ» [vaˈθis] (masc.), [vaθˈça] (fem.), [vaˈθi] (neut.) < Classical adj. «βαθύς, -θεῖα, -θύ» bătʰús (masc.), bătʰeî̯ă (fem.), bătʰú (neut.) --> deep, hiɡh, rich (of unknown etymoloɡy, probably Pre-Greek).

    Deepen (v.): «Βαθαίνω» [vaˈθe.nɔ] & «βαθύνω» [vaˈθi.nɔ] < Classical v. «βαθύνω» bătʰúnō --> to go deep, sink (intr.) < adj.«βαθύς» (see above).

    Deeply (adv.): «Βαθέως» [vaˈθe.ɔs] or (colloq.) «βαθιά» [vaθˈça] < Classical adv. «βαθέως» bătʰéōs.
    -------

    Shallow (adj.):
    (I) «Ρηχός, -χή, -χό»[ɾiˈxɔs] (masc.), [ɾiˈçi] (fem.), [ɾiˈxɔ] (neut.) < Classical noun «ῥαχός» rʰăkʰós (fem.), Ion. «ῥηχός» rʰēkʰós (fem.) --> briar, thorn, hedɡe, spriɡ; semantically, «ρηχός» was initially the shallow waters as deep as the length of a sprig, later it stood alone as a descriptive adjective.

    (II) «Αβαθής, -θής, -θές» [a.vaˈθis] (masc. & fem.), [a.vaˈθes] (neut.) < Κοine adj. «ἀβαθής, -θής, -θές» ăbătʰḗs (masc. & fem.), ăbătʰés (neut.) --> shallow, water of little depth < ἀ- privative + Classical neuter noun «βάθος» bắtʰŏs --> depth, height, breadth, fullness, profundity (from «βαθύς» see earlier).
    (I) is used in everyday speech, (II) is learned and rarer.

    Shoal (v.): «Ρηχαίνω» [ɾiˈçe.nɔ] --> to become shallow (intr.), to make shallow < adj. «ρηχός» (see above).

    The adverb is «αβαθώς» [a.vaˈθɔs] (extremely rare), or the more commonly used «ρηχά» [ɾiˈxa] --> shallowly.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Don't be shallow! = Doe/Wees niet zo oppervlakkig!
    (oppervlak = surface)
    Indeed, indeed, but I do not consider them synonyms. I cannot say that water can be dangerously superficial...

    @apmoy70:: interesting note on the origin of /rixos/, thanks! Do you consider it a true antonym, really meaning "undeep"' water? And do you use the word metaphorically? Can a person be shallow (see the quote in @3)?

    I am suddenly reminded of an engine called bathyscaaf, which I remember reading about when I was young: a submarine, I think...
     

    Red Arrow

    Senior Member
    Dutch - Belgium
    You also have:
    Diep inademen (a deep breath)
    Oppervlakkig/ondiep inademen (an undeep breath)
     

    Red Arrow

    Senior Member
    Dutch - Belgium
    I agree that you can't say oppervlakkig about water. I don't agree that the basic meaning of diep is related to water. Deep into your lungs, deep into the soil, deep into your pocket, deep into the water...
     

    Circunflejo

    Senior Member
    Castellano de Castilla
    Deep in Spanish is profundo (feminine: profunda). The opposite, or the closest to it, would be superficial.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    I agree that you can't say oppervlakkig about water. I don't agree that the basic meaning of diep is related to water. Deep into your lungs, deep into the soil, deep into your pocket, deep into the water...
    Let me prove it to you... If I can at least. One of the meanings is always the literal one, often the easiest one, I think. But that is a feeling or a conviction, fairly spontaneous, but I will look for argument to substantiate my claim!
     
    ...

    @apmoy70:: interesting note on the origin of /rixos/, thanks! Do you consider it a true antonym, really meaning "undeep"' water? And do you use the word metaphorically? Can a person be shallow (see the quote in @3)?
    Yes it's its true antonym, and yes, it can be used metaphorically, a person can be «ρηχός»
    I am suddenly reminded of an engine called bathyscaaf, which I remember reading about when I was young: a submarine, I think...
    That would be from «βαθύς» băthús (see my previous post) + «σκάφος» skắpʰŏs (neut.) --> hull of a ship, ship; it's a word coined by the Swiss inventor of the bathyscaphe, Auguste Piccard
     

    Penyafort

    Senior Member
    Catalan (Catalonia), Spanish (Spain)
    In Catalan, the two genuine words for deep and shallow are pregon and som.

    pregon, pregona, from Latin profundu/a 'deep'​
    som, soma, from Latin summu/a 'higher'​

    However, the two words are regarded these days by most speakers as rather literary, having been commonly replaced by the learned words profund/a and superficial.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    But would you ever say that the water is superficial??? We have the same word in Dutch (well, an equivalent), but we could not say this. Figuratively yes, but not literally: an in-depth treatment versus a superficial treatment...
     

    nimak

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    Macedonian:

    длабок (dlábok) ['dɫabɔk] adj.m. = "deep"
    плиток (plítok) ['plitɔk] adj.m. = "shallow"

    Examples:

    • длабока вода (dláboka vóda) = "deep water"
    • плитка вода (plítka vóda) = "shallow water"
    • длабоко море (dlábokо móre) = "deep sea"
    • плитка река (plítka réka) = "shallow river"
    • со длабок џеб (so dlábok džéb) = lit. "with deep pocket"; "(someone) with а lot of money"; "rich"
    • со плиток џеб (so plítok džéb) = lit. "with shallow pocket"; "(someone) with little money"; "poor"
    • длабоки мисли (dláboki mísli) = "deep thoughts"
    • плиток ум (plítok úm) = "shallow mind"
     
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    Red Arrow

    Senior Member
    Dutch - Belgium
    The only reason why "oppervlakkig water" isn't said is because we already have the common term "oppervlaktewater". But you can for instance say: "oppervlakkige afstroming van water".
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    I am wondering whether we are referring to the same thing. I am not referring to Oppervlaktewater in Dutch, which is water at the surface as opposed to water in the soil or something the like, source water. (Wiki: "al het water dat zich in vloeibare vorm aan de oppervlakte van een planeet bevindt. Het staat hiermee in tegenstelling tot het grondwater dat bij bronnen opwelt, het op de polen en in gletsjers in de vorm van ijs gebonden water en waterdamp in de dampkring.") I am only referring to the relative depth of a sea, river, etc.: one can wade in through shallow water, not in deep water/ seas/...
     
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