deferred adjudication

robjh22

Senior Member
U.S.A. & English
Yes, there is an old thread on this term, but it was weakly attended and not dispositive. I have considered the obvious "adjudicación diferida," but it is unsatisfactorily English-sounding. Moreover, ordinary Mexican clients of mine do not seem to understand it. I suggest:

fallo suspendido

setnencia postergada

decisión aplazada

What do you think? "Deferred adjudication" in American English really means that the judge accepts a guilty plea but postpones entry of judgment of conviction, for a period of time to see if the defendant behaves. If he does, the case is closed without the defendant suffering a criminal record of the guilty plea.

Bear in mind that "fallo postergado" is a dubious solution because my clients tend to use neither word and I suspect it's because they are unknown in standard Mexican speech.
 
  • robjh22

    Senior Member
    U.S.A. & English
    Thanks, Boss, and that will work, but it's not really a suspended sentence. Instead, it's a suspension of the whole case. At the end of the period, a deferred adjudication means there is no record of a conviction. A suspended sentence is a final conviction whereby the defendant is convicted but doesn't go to jail unless he violates probation.

    Thanks again
     

    the boss

    Banned
    Mexico
    En cuanto al término, evidentemente resulta un problema porque en México no existe esa figura.

    De acuerdo a lo quen leí Sentencia o Fallo suspendido puede funcionar en el sentido de que la sentencia queda pendiente de dictarse.

    No considero que todo el caso quede suspendido, dado que entonces se estaría habalndo de una figura procesal que se denomina SUSPENSIÓN DEL PROCEDIMIENTO:

    "The judge literally defers a decision on the defendant’s guilt, places the defendant on a period of supervision, and imposes certain contractual conditions designed to rehabilitate or punish the defendant and protect the victim and the public..."

    Por otra parte, insisto en que el proceso no se detiene: se llava a la etapa procesal de la "vista para sentencia", es decir, cuando el Juez declara que la causa está lista para el estudio (derecho procesal penal mexicano) y ahí se queda.

    "A defendant placed on deferred adjudication avoids a conviction or sentence because the judge is authorized to delay any finding of guilt or punishment for as long as the defendant successfully complies with the conditions of supervision."

    Ojala te sea util la aportación.​
     
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    robjh22

    Senior Member
    U.S.A. & English
    SUSPENSIÓN DEL PROCEDIMIENTO:

    Francamente, esa me gusta bastante. Lo importante para mí es mas que el acusado entienda lo significado de la resolución, y "suspension del procedimiento" servira bien.

    Gracias
     

    the boss

    Banned
    Mexico
    Te voy a proponer un término que quizá suene ridículo. A ver qué opinas:

    "POSTERGACIÓN DEL DICTADO DE LA SENTENCIA", porque eso es realmente.

    Quizá si hablas de suspensión del procedimiento no te capten bien, porque recuerda que en este caso, a cambio de ese diferimiento, debe cumplir ciertas condiciones. Finalmente, es como un probation a prueba (?)

    Además, la suspensión del procedimiento tiene otro alcance y consecuencias procesales.

    Saludos
     
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    robjh22

    Senior Member
    U.S.A. & English
    I don't know what happened to my first reply, but yes, that's good. None of these is perfect, because the judge is delaying not only the sentence, but the judgment of conviciton as well (compare straight probation, where you are actually convicted, but the sentence alone is suspended). Another problem is that so many of my clients have 3 years of schooling, and have never heard either "fallo" or "postergación" on their ranchos.

    But your advice is linguistically excellent, and I do appreciate it.

    RH
     

    Dani California

    Senior Member
    Spain, Spanish
    Te voy a proponer un término que auizá suene ridículo. A ver que opinas:

    "POSTERGACIÓN DEL DICTADO DE LA SENTENCIA", porque eso es realmente.

    Quizá si hablas de suspensión del procedimiento no te capten bien, porque recuerda que en este caso, a cambio de ese diferimiento, debe cumplir ciertas condiciones. Finalmente, es como un probation a prueba (?)

    Además, la suspensión del procedimiento tiene otro alcance y consecuencias procesales.

    Saludos

    Luzón Cuesta en su compendio de Derecho Penal (Parte General) examinaba al hablar de la Probation norteamericana, como modalidad de la misma el supuesto que planteais y lo contemplaba como "suspensión del dictado de la sentencia". Creo que emplearía este término mejor que postergar (la suspensión deja más claro que "se detiene" el dictado del fallo, habida cuenta que se han de cumplir determinadas condiciones por el enjuiciado mientras que postergar podría interpretarse como simple atraso/retraso en el dictado del fallo).
    Espero que ayude.
    Saludos
     

    OleQuijote

    New Member
    English
    "Deferred Adjudication" has always been a hard concept to explain, much less translate. To understand what it is, it's easier to first understand what "normal" or "straight" probation is. All that I am describing is based on Texas law. Normal probation is where someone is found guilty ("adjudicated" guilty), sentenced to a term in jail or prison, and then the sentence is suspended, and the person is placed on probation or "community supervision" for a period of time, likely with various conditions and prohibitions. For example, in an misdemeanor theft case in Texas, a judge might give someone probation, and the judge might recite the sentence imposed as follows: "I accept your plea of 'guilty,' and I find you guilty. I assess punishment at a $500 fine and 90 days in the county jail. I will, however, suspend the jail sentence for a period of 9 months. During that time, I order that you pay your fine and court costs, attend an anti-theft class, and complete 40 hours of community service, along with other standard conditions of probation that will be included in written order and provided to you . . . ." When the judge says "I find you guilty," he could also say "I adjudicate you guilty."

    When someone gets deferred adjudication, what the judge is deferring is the finding of guilty or the formal determination by the court that someone is guilty. Under Texas law, when this happens, then there is no formal finding of guilt made, no jail sentence imposed, but, otherwise, everything else is the same. The person will be ordered to pay a fine, be placed on probation for a period of time, and ordered to comply with certain conditions and prohibitions. When a judge gives someone deferred adjudication, the recitation of the sentence imposed would go something like this: "I accept you plea of "guilty," and I find that your plea would be sufficient for me to find you guilty at this time. However, I will defer making such finding and place you on community supervision for a period of 9 months. During that time, I order that you pay a fine of $500, plus court costs. I also order that you attend an anti-theft class and complete 40 hours of community service, along with other standard conditions of probation that will be included in the written order provided to you . . . ."

    The benefit of deferred adjudication is that there is never a conviction, which is another way of saying "adjudication" or "formal finding of guilt." When that happens, our law provides under most circumstances that the person can get the record sealed. It can also be a way to avoid other disabilities that a conviction may cause. For instance, if you're convicted of theft in Texas, you cannot serve on a jury and such conviction can be used to impeach your credibility if you were testifying in court. Deferred adjudication would avoid those consequences.

    I've never found a good translation. I generally explain it to my clients as I have explained it above and merely used the expression in English as a short-hand reference to what I have already explained. When I translate for the client (not really supposed to, but when there's no interpreter around . . . well, it happens), I'll say something like "Acepto su declaración de 'culpable" y determino que eso sería suficiente para que yo le dictara culpable en este momento, pero voy a aplazar esa determinación durante 9 meses y le mando a libertad condicional . . . . "

    My hope is that someone much more knowledgeable than I am will be able to come up with a better translation, having, perhaps a clearer idea of what deferred adjudication is.
     

    Veritas Patefacta

    Senior Member
    English
    Lo importante de la institución de deferred adjudication no es tanto el hecho de que el imputado se reconozca culpable sino que si este cumple con las condiciones impuestas por un tribunal, la acción penal quedará sobreseída. Según Black’s Law Dictionary, las siguientes denominaciones son sinónimos de dicha voz: deferred judgment, deferred adjudication probation, deferred prosecution, probation before judgment, probation without judgment, pretrial intervention, adjudication withheld. Asimismo, en Massachusetts se llama pretrial probation y en Nueva York se llama adjournment in contemplation of dismissal.

    En los países de hablahispana, dicha institución se denomina de las siguientes formas:

    suspensión condicional del procedimiento
    Chile, República Dominicana, El Salvador, Paraguay

    suspensión condicional del proceso
    Bolivia, Honduras, México, Panamá y Venezuela

    suspensión del proceso a prueba
    Argentina, Costa Rica, Nicaragua

    México
    Artículo 191. Definición
    Por suspensión condicional del proceso deberá entenderse el planteamiento formulado por el Ministerio Público o por el imputado, el cual contendrá un plan detallado sobre el pago de la reparación del daño y el sometimiento del imputado a una o varias de las condiciones que refiere este Capítulo, que garanticen una efectiva tutela de los derechos de la víctima u ofendido y que en caso de cumplirse, pueda dar lugar a la extinción de la acción penal.
     
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