Because it's a city, people did work to make it what it is, the entity "Chicago" didn't do it by itself, it had an action done to it, to make it what it is.
It's the same when talking about houses, a 'house' cannot do anything.. that's why we say:
A house was built.
A house has been built.
The first example of 'has developed' doesn't seem right, only your second example.