Difference between "с" and "со"

hinshawpiano

New Member
English - USA
I am a university student studying Russian, and right now, in class, we are studying the instrumental case, using the prepositions "с" and "со" ("with"). I can't remember: when is "c" used, and when is "со" used?
 
  • cablino

    Senior Member
    English (American)
    The preposition "со" is used when a consonant cluster follows the preposition, this makes pronunciation easier.

    In the personal pronoun:
    "мн" in "со мной"

    A similiar exception is found with the preposition "о" but in this case the preposition changes to "обо" and the personal pronoun will be "мне", the rules must simply be memorized

    Usually the preposition will stay the same:
    "с тобой, с ним, с ней" and so on
     

    Q-cumber

    Senior Member
    I am a university student studying Russian, and right now, in class, we are studying the instrumental case, using the prepositions "с" and "со" ("with"). I can't remember: when is "c" used, and when is "со" used?
    It's a bit like using "a / an" articles in English, but opposite. If the next word, either a noun or an adjective, starts from a conjunction of consonants and it's kind of difficult to pronounce "с", we use "со":
    со стола <from table> - an apple
    "со стола" sounds smooth, whereas с стола :cross: would be difficult to utter...
    "с красного стола" <from the red table> (an adjective in the middle )

    The preposition "со" is used with the following pairs of consonants:
    c+any со спины, со стороны, со сливками <with cream>
    з+any со значением, со знаком
    ж+any со жгутом <with a tourniquet>
    ш+any co швами <with stitches>, со школы <from school>
    л or ль + any со льдом <with ice> , со львом <with a lion>
    р+any со ртом
    м+any со мной
    щ - alone со щавелем <with sorrel>, со щелями <with cracks>, со щами <shchi - Russian cabbage soup>
    Another similar pair of prepositions is "в / во" <in, into, within, etc.>

    в воде <in the water> во рту <in a mouth>
     
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    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    A similiar exception is found with the preposition "о" but in this case the preposition changes to "обо" and the personal pronoun will be "мне", the rules must simply be memorized
    1. "Обо" is used only with pronouns "я" and "весь" (!).
    Обо мне, обо всех, обо всём. :tick:
    Обо складе, обо страхе, обо стройке, обо мнении. :cross:
    О складе, о страхе, о стройке, о мнении. :tick:

    So, this exception isn't similar, because "со" can be used with many nouns having a consonant cluster in the beginning, with a first letter "с" or "з" (as well as "л", "р", "ж", "ш" - P.S.).
    Со страшным грохотом, со складом, со справкой, со злом, со стариком. :tick:
    Surely not every cluster will do in common cases (!), because:
    C тросом, с кладом, с мнением, с влечением, с блином, с простотой.
    Looks like the pronouns "я" and "весь", which have no letters "с" and "з" in the very beginning, are the only exceptions again (со мной, со всем)!

    2. Speaking about the prepositive "о", it is strange that you didn't mentioned the prepositive "об". It is just something opposite - this prepositive is used instead of "о" before words beginning from a vowel:
    "об аварии", "об этом", "об облаке".
     
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    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    м+any со мной
    Incorrect. Only "со мной" (an exception) - but "с мнением", "с мраком" etc.
    щ - alone со щавелем <with sorrel>, со щелями <with cracks>, со щами <shchi - Russian cabbage soup>
    I'm not sure, but prepositive "c" is used ~100 times more frequently with the noun "щи" (according to Yandex), and also more frequently with other words mentioned above.
     

    Q-cumber

    Senior Member
    Incorrect. Only "со мной" (an exception) - but "с мнением", "с мраком" etc.
    "со мнением" is at least possible.
    Ты венчаешь с ветром тишь,
    Луг с росой, зарю со мраком...(c) Брюсов
    "со многими" (странами, неизвестными) and so on.
    Please refer to the explanation provided by "справочная служба русского языка"

    I'm not sure, but prepositive "c" is used ~100 times more frequently with the noun "щи" (according to Yandex), and also more frequently with other words mentioned above.
    "Ошибка не становится истиной по причине её широкого распространения..." (с) Ганди :)

    PS I didn't try to provide any absolute rules on how to use the prepositions. I was only about to give hinshawpiano the general idea.
     
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    Maroseika

    Moderator
    Russian
    I'm not sure, but prepositive "c" is used ~100 times more frequently with the noun "щи" (according to Yandex), and also more frequently with other words mentioned above.
    I'd rather say they just use to merge in the speech:
    с щами - [щщами]
    с щёткой - [щщоткой]
    с счетами - [щщитами]
    с счётами - [щщотами]
     
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