Well, about the words juudaist and juudausuline, neither those exist in Estonian. I actually had a really hard time trying to think what the proper word was in this situation and after I checked some dictionaries and asked my dad P), it kind of seems we don't have one. Yeap, weird. All we really say is "judaismi järgija" or "juudi usu järgija" or "juudi usku inimene". "Judaism" exists, but "judaist" for some weird reason doesn't. A jew is "juut", but apparently that only goes for the nationality, not the religion.
As for the other two, I guess the first options are somewhat more commonly used, but both are perfectly correct and used and fine in every way.