This doesn't seem to have ever received a definitive response.
I specifically associate this with a situation where it turns out that something you had somewhat strongly affirmed turns out to be wrong and there's no way you can accept admitting it. At this moment of admission you "have egg on your face".
Les expressions françaises données ci-dessus correspondent-elles à ce sens ?
I understand it to mean more broadly to be made to look stupid. 'Avoir l'air fin' was the one that came to my mind. 'Se retrouver comme une andouille/un imbécile' also works. But not 'Gros-Jean comme devant', which means you tried but you failed.
Yes, " se retrouver Gros-Jean comme devant " translates into English better as "he found himself back at square one / back where he started [from]", i.e., he achieved nothing (but he may still be proud for trying).
Eh bien on peut être "couvert de ridicule". Mais il y a aussi une expression plus vulgaire qui dans l'esprit semble être plus proche : "se retrouver morveux" / "se sentir morveux". En France ce serait donc la morve du nez qui remplacerait le jaune de l'oeuf !