el desafío que abre la contemporaneidad

Terentiaparera

Senior Member
English - UK
Hi, which is the subject and which is the object of abre here, please? And please could you tell me how you know? Usually I just know, but I can't be sure here.

el doble desafío que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano: las revoluciones e independencias
the dual challenge that modernity poses the Hispano-American space
OR
the dual challenge that began modernity in the Hispano-American space

Contextually it seems either can work (the historical Late Modern Era started with revolutions and independence in Latin America; those revolutions and independence also posed challenges in this period).

Gracias de antemano
 
  • Cholo234

    Senior Member
    American English
    which is the subject and which is the object of abre here, please? And please could you tell me how you know? Usually I just know, but I can't be sure here.

    Contemporaneidad = subject of the clause
    Desafío = object of the clause

    The context, however simple or complex, and my understanding of several word order "practices" help me in attempting to see "what is the subject" and "what is the object."

    Re your sentence, you can ask yourself if (1) contemporaneity is unlocking a challenge or if (2) a challenge is unlocking contemporaneity. You switch the apparent subject and object. (Number 1 makes more sense than number 2.)

    (Abrir can mean to unlock.)
     
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    Terentiaparera

    Senior Member
    English - UK
    Thanks Cholo.

    Is it purely the context that has given you the clue here? What is perhaps unclear in the text I quoted is that "contemporaneidad" is referring to the specific concept of a defined period in history (the Late Modern era - as opposed e.g. to the Early Modern era, the Late Middle Ages, the Dark Ages, etc.). Since these periods in history are usually defined by major social and/or geopolitical changes, it can make sense for Modernity to open/begin a dual challenge of revolutions and independence. Does this alter any of what you have already said?
     

    Cholo234

    Senior Member
    American English
    Is it purely the context that has given you the clue here? What is perhaps unclear in the text I quoted is that "contemporaneidad" is referring to the specific concept of a defined period in history (the Late Modern era - as opposed e.g. to the Early Modern era, the Late Middle Ages, the Dark Ages, etc.). Since these periods in history are usually defined by major social and/or geopolitical changes, it can make sense for Modernity to open/begin a dual challenge of revolutions and independence. Does this alter any of what you have already said?

    "No" to both questions. Here's what I did:

    I looked at the subject clause "el desafío que abre la contemporaneidad" and saw two things: (1) a noun phrase and (2) que + a verb phrase, which is a "classic structure" for a relative clause -- a clause which modifies a noun phrase.

    Which noun phrase did it modify? El desafío not only made the "most sense" -- it was the only choice that made sense to me. (I knew that a relative clause often appears just after the antecedent in Spanish.)

    I hope this is helpful.

    (I'd be curious to see the sentence as a whole in its original context. If you can look at a sentence as a whole, the anatomy of the sentence can be clearer.)

    An understanding of history would be a great help. (The focus was on revolutions and independence in Latin America.) The OP said it was logical for Modernity (Contemporaneity) to open a dual challenge of revolution(s) and independence.
     
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    Terentiaparera

    Senior Member
    English - UK
    Thanks Cholo, that's very clear.

    The original sentence won't enlighten you much, I don't think:
    El primer artículo [del libro] gira en torno al doble desafío que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano: las revoluciones e independencias.
     
    I interpret the phrase to mean the dual challenge that opens/ushers in/marks the beginning of the Late Modern era, i.e., that desafío is the subject and contemporaneidad is the object. Other than relying on word order -- a shaky grounds in Spanish -- I don't see any obvious way, apart from further context, to tell which is the subject/object of abrir
     

    franzjekill

    Mod E/S
    Español rioplatense
    el doble desafío que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano
    Según entiendo, lo que está en negrita es una oración subordinada adjetiva especificativa. Adjetiva y especifica el sustantivo "desafío". "Desafío" es el antecedente de "que" (que=el desafío)
    El pronombre relativo "que", en este caso, cumpliría la función de sujeto de la subordinada: el desafío abre la contemporaneidad...
    Como "que"= desafío, ""que" es el sujeto de la subordinada.
     

    Cholo234

    Senior Member
    American English
    Opening up the Late Modern Era (contemporaneidad) by means of "the challenge of revolutions and independence in Latin America" doesn't sound historically correct. Or is it?

    Since these periods in history are usually defined by major social and/or geopolitical changes, it can make sense for Modernity to open/begin a dual challenge of revolutions and independence.

    Two online translators agree on most items except for the OP's subject sentence:

    The first article of the book revolves around the double challenge that contemporaneity opens up in the Spanish-American space: revolutions and independence. Google

    The first article of the book revolves around the double challenge that opens up contemporaryity [contemporaneity] in the Spanish-American space: revolutions and independence.
     
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    Cholo234

    Senior Member
    American English
    Según entiendo, lo que está en negrita es una oración subordinada adjetiva especificativa. Adjetiva y especifica el sustantivo "desafío". "Desafío" es el antecedente de "que" (que=el desafío)
    El pronombre relativo "que", en este caso, cumpliría la función de sujeto de la subordinada: el desafío abre la contemporaneidad...
    Como "que"= desafío, ""que" es el sujeto de la subordinada.
    I interpret the phrase to mean the dual challenge that opens/ushers in/marks the beginning of the Late Modern era, i.e., that desafío is the subject and contemporaneidad is the object. Other than relying on word order -- a shaky grounds in Spanish -- I don't see any obvious way, apart from further context, to tell which is the subject/object of abrir

    Uds. tienen el apoyo de "user Glorfindel" en un aporte de stackexchange.com, el cual trasladó la frase de la manera siguiente:

    "The first chapter of the book is about the double challenge that marks the beginning of the Contemporary Era in Latin America: the revolutions and the independence declarations."

    relative pronoun's "role" in a relative clause
     
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